In a landmark case, the Chilean Supreme Court announced on September 21 its decision to extradite former Peruvian President Alberto Fujimori to Peru to face trial for human rights abuses. Fujimori is charged in the killings of 25 people in two separate massacres in 1991 and 1992, carried out by a specialized squad of military intelligence officers known as the Colina Group. This is the first time a court has ordered the extradition of a former head of state to be tried for gross human rights violations in his home country. Human Rights Watch worked closely with Peruvian allies to put together a compelling case for extradition. Our 2005 report detailed the substantial evidence linking Fujimori to the two massacres, as well as to several corruption cases for which extradition was ordered. After a lower court denied Peru’s extradition request earlier this year, we issued a statement pointing out the Chilean judge’s failure to consider key evidence in several important cases. We will now watch closely to ensure that Peru provides Fujimori a fair and independent investigation and trial.