Spain’s pushback policy contributed to the deaths of migrants at its land and sea borders, with a particularly high death toll in the Atlantic route to the Canary Islands. The country’s parliament has improved protections for victims of rape and sexual consent, consolidating the rights of lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender and intersex people, and improving the legal gender recognition process. Poverty and food insecurity continue to cause concern, after being exacerbated by the Covid-19 pandemic. Evictions of renters and mortgage-holders continued, despite an extension of a pandemic-related moratorium for people who could demonstrate socioeconomic vulnerability.

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