Excessive use of force by security forces marred an independence referendum on October 1, 2017, held despite a high court ruling it was unconstitutional. Increasing numbers of migrants arriving on the Spanish mainland by sea face substandard conditions in police facilities and obstacles to applying for asylum. A law allowing border guards to summarily return migrants from Ceuta and Melilla to Morocco remained unchanged despite an October 2017 condemnation by the European Court of Human Rights. Asylum seekers in the enclaves face delays in transfers to the mainland. The EU Court of Justice issued two more rulings against Spain for unfair mortgage practices.