Throughout the year, all parties to the armed conflict in eastern Ukraine frequently endangered civilians and civilian infrastructure as they continued hostilities, ignoring the 2015 Minsk Agreements. Parts of Donetsk and Luhansk regions remain under de facto control of Russia-backed armed groups. Total impunity for conflict-related torture and arbitrary detention persisted on both sides. New government measures further shrank media pluralism, new regulations curbed freedom of expression and association, and draft laws propose further restrictions. In Crimea, Russian authorities intensified persecution of Crimean Tatars and pro-Ukraine activists for their peaceful opposition to Russia’s occupation.