Serbia: War crimes prosecutions progress slowly in domestic courts, hampered by inadequate resources and a lack of political support. Asylum seekers have no meaningful access to protection and are stranded in poor conditions. Roma face housing discrimination and harassment. Journalists reporting on sensitive issues continue to endure attacks, threats, lawsuits and smear campaigns.

Kosovo: The special court to try serious war crimes initiated its first trial in September 2021 against a former Kosovo Liberation Army Commander and brought indictments against other former high ranking Kosovo Liberation Army officials. Journalists face threats and intimidation. Members of Roma, Ashkali, and Egyptian communities face discrimination. The United Nations has yet to provide an apology or individual compensation to Roma victims of the UN-managed lead contaminated refugee camps in Northern Kosovo.