Following a failed coup in July 2016 in which around 250 died, the government imposed a state of emergency allowing rule by decree and dismissed over 100,000 public officials due to alleged coup links, with courts jailing over 47,000 more on terrorism charges. An April 2017 referendum approved a powerful executive presidency to replace the parliamentary system with weakened judicial and parliamentary checks. A crackdown on independent media and Kurdish democratic opposition has led to the jailing of over 150 journalists and media workers, as well as 12 parliamentarians. Turkey hosts around 3 million Syrian refugees, more than any other country, but many of them face obstacles accessing education and employment.