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Photo used in error
A photograph from Ayn al-Arab or Kobani in northern Syria was mistakenly used to accompany a February 26 tweet linking to a New York Times article on a Human Rights Watch report detailing the Syrian government's use of barrel bombs in air strikes elsewhere in the country. The photograph of the town devastated by U.S. air strikes and the use of explosive weapons by ground forces should not have been used to illustrate the tweet and its misuse was entirely unintentional. Human Rights Watch apologizes for this error.
An earlier version of the Daily Brief on December 17 incorrectly stated that the US lifted its embargo against Cuba. Rather, the US resumed diplomatic relations with Cuba.
The original version of this news release stated, "For weeks, the Defense Ministry, the governor of the State of Mexico, and the state attorney general upheld the official account that the soldiers had died in a shootout with the 22 civilians and that the soldiers had acted properly." The news release was updated on November 10, 2014 to say, "For weeks, the Defense Ministry, the governor of the State of Mexico, and the state attorney general upheld the official account that the fatalities had occurred in a shootout and that the soldiers had acted properly."
The Spanish summary of the report misidentifies the number and names of Mexican states that do not offer palliative care services. We also incorrectly stated the number of medical schools in both the English and Spanish summaries.
In the Background section of the September 2014 report, Human Rights Watch states that the Marine market is situated inside the Mogadishu International Airport compound but not in the AMISOM base camp. However, in an October 19 letter to Human Rights Watch, the Special Representative of the Chairperson of the Commission for Somalia (SRCC) states that this market is within the base camp.
The Background section states that the Ugandan force command moves between the AMISOM base camp and the Mogadishu stadium. In this same letter, the SRCC said that the Ugandan force headquarters – Sector 1 of the mission – are based at the base camp.
The report has been corrected on pages 16, 17, and 24 to reflect these changes.
Photo used in error
A photograph from Odessa, Ukraine, was mistakenly used to accompany an October digital marketing campaign about Russia. The photograph should not have been used to illustrate the campaign, and its misuse was entirely unintentional. Human Rights Watch sincerely apologizes for this error.
This report incorrectly referenced Kate Chappell’s blog, which was included by mistake in section 1. We have deleted this reference and the relevant footnote has been corrected.
This Dispatch incorrectly stated that the ‘propaganda’ bill had already passed its first reading in parliament on October 9. The Dispatch was updated on October 14 to reflect that Kyrgyzstan’s parliament had only discussed the bill, but had not voted on it.
In a news release published on July 22, 2014, Human Rights Watch stated incorrectly that all five members of the Ghannam family killed in an airstrike on their home in Rafah on July 11 were civilians, according to family members and local residents. However, an armed group, the Quds Brigades, has claimed that one of the casualties, Mahmoud Ghannam, 28, was a member. Because Human Rights Watch has been unable to determine his rank or role in the Quds Brigade, his military significance cannot be determined, which is necessary for determining the lawfulness of the attack under the laws of war – so the case has been omitted from the news release.
The July 2014 report Illusion of Justice did not acknowledge Jeanne Theoharis, professor of political science at Brooklyn College, for her input and support. The report has been updated to include Theoharis in the acknowledgements.
Human Rights Watch’s May 2014 report “Shattered Dreams” in the Methodology section omitted a number of civil society actors that were interviewed for the report. The list has now been completed by including Provivienda, Housing Rights Watch-FEANTSA (European Federation of National Organisations working with the Homeless), member organizations of the Taula d’entitats del Tercer Sector Social de Catalunya, and ClinHab, a legal clinic consultation service at the University of Barcelona’s law school, as well as economists on page 12. Mr Guillem Fernàndez of Housing Rights Watch-FEANTSA was also added to the Acknowledgements section on page 81.
Multiple corrections were made to the report:
Page 20, revised paragraph:
- A holdover from the pre-colonial and colonial eras, paramount chiefs, who have historically administered land outside of Freetown, play a critical role in land-use policy implementation."
- The paramount chief is elected for a life term, and candidates for the position are limited to and appointed by members of local ruling houses.
Page 21, revised paragraphs:
- But questions remain as to whether the chiefs are truly representing residents in facilitating the leasing of land.
- In recent years, however, numerous conflicts over land have arisen because chiefs, directed by government, appear to have participated in the leasing of land without fully consulting with local residents or gaining their consent.
Page 22, revised paragraphs:
- "But, in practice, at least in Tonkolili, the chiefs appear to have played a pivotal role in enforcing land-use decisions, performing a political and economic function, as much as a customary one.
- Although Sierra Leone's land is owned collectively by families and communities, chiefs increasingly act as if they control the surface of the land, while the minerals beneath belong to the state.
Page 23, revised bullet: 50 percent to the land owners.
Page 26, revised paragraph: When African Minerals began its exploration, the paramount chief of Kalansongoia and the company identified nine villages that would be affected by the company's operations. He helped broker the relocation of the families in three villages, which he did, he said, with their consent.
In the March 2014 report, a sentence on page 73 could be read to suggest that the Awramba Times or HornAffairs were implicated in the leak of Tadesse Kersmo’s Skype conversation. This was not the case and the sentence has been corrected to read: “One of the group conversations that he had on Skype with Ginbot leaders during the time of his infection was published on June 20, 2013.”
The February 2014 report did not acknowledge AMDH-Nador for its assistance. The report has been updated to include AMDH-Nador in the acknowledgements.
Human Rights Watch's June 20 and December 14, 2013 news releases stated incorrectly that article 207 of the Libyan Penal Code criminalizes insults to religion [blasphemy], with punishments up to death. In fact, article 207 instead applies to “promotion of any act against the state order” with punishment up to death. Insulting religion is under article 291, punishable by a prison term.
The 2014 World Report chapter on China contained an error on page 328. It said that “Two people died on the spot, and several others were injured” in a July 6 incident in which “the police opened fire in Nyitso, Dawu prefecture (Ch. Daofu), on a crowd that had gathered in the countryside to celebrate the Dalai Lama’s birthday.” Subsequent reports indicates that there were no fatal casualties, only non-fatal ones.
The report released on October 21, 2013 contained errors regarding two corruption scandals.
- On page 1, the date of the Global Fund scandal was corrected from 2010 to 2005.
- On page 18, the amount of the Global Fund scandal was corrected to read $4.5 million and the amount of the GAVI fund scandal was corrected to read $800,000. That the sentence now reads: "In 2005, health ministry officials allegedly embezzled over $4.5 million from the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria. Mid-level managers faced prosecutions but the implicated ministers resigned only to return recently to key posts in government. In 2007 the Inspectorate of Government detected an estimated $800,000 million missing from the GAVI Alliance under the responsibility of the Ministry of Health." A new footnote was inserted to quote the figure of the Global Fund: "The Global Fund, The Office of the Inspector General, "Follow up review of the Global Fund grants to Uganda," September 9, 2009, on file with Human Rights Watch and the Lowenstein Clinic, p. 6."
- On page 50, the same incorrect dollar amount for the Global Fund scandal was corrected to $4.5 million.
The Human Rights Watch press release of October 21, 2013, now reflects the above corrections: “Other scandals have rocked health programs, like the US$4.5 million diverted from the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis, and Malaria in 2005, and the US$800,000 stolen from the Global Alliance for Vaccines and Immunisations in 2006.”
In the report released on October 22, 2013, Human Rights Watch printed the following errors:
- On page 39, the names of the driver and one of the passengers of the Toyota mentioned were reversed in the original text. Ali al-Qawli, 34, was an elementary-school teacher and father of three, and his cousin Salim al-Qawli, 20, was a college student who drove the borrowed Toyota as a car service to earn money for his family.
- On page 69, it was originally stated that “only six civilians” survived the strike in Al-Majalah. Human Rights Watch has been informed that potentially more than six survived the strike.
Human Rights Watch’s news release of July 22 on the Democratic Republic of Congo contained an error. It said that Rwandan soldiers had served with the peacekeeping contingent in Somalia and Darfur. In fact, Rwandan peacekeepers served in Darfur but not in Somalia.
Only one of those we interviewed mentioned Somalia (whereas others mentioned Darfur). We erred in including it because we ordinarily do not rely on only one uncorroborated witness in our publications. This was a mistake on our part. However, more than 50 witnesses, corroborated and cross-checked, confirmed the key findings of our press release about continuing Rwandan support for the M23. These findings are accurate and we fully stand behind them.
Human Rights Watch’s October 2009 report, “Lost in Transit,” used an incorrect term in its French. The report now uses “entretien” in place of “interrogatoire” in three places on pages 46 and 47.
In its news release of June 6, 2013 on Yemen, Human Rights Watch stated incorrectly that on June 4, “prison authorities removed intravenous feeding tubes from the 22 hunger strikers.” The news release has been corrected to state that on June 4, “22 prisoners removed their intravenous feeding tubes.”
The Nigeria press release published on May 1, 2013 entitled, “Nigeria: Massive Destruction, Deaths From Military Raid,” incorrectly stated that Senator Maina Lawan said “six” other victims were buried in separate locations. The corrected version online reads: “Senator Maina Lawan, the federal senator representing Baga, told Human Rights Watch, based on a two-day site visit on April 25 and 26, that some 220 people had been buried in three cemeteries, while eight others had been buried in separate locations.” Also, the press release incorrectly stated that “the military team said they visited two graveyards in Baga but could only identify 32 fresh graves.” The corrected version reads: “The government’s National Emergency Management Agency said it visited two graveyards in Baga but could only identify 32 fresh graves.”
The Russia report of April 2013 contains the following errors:
- On page 37, the new treason law broadened the definition of treason by “Adding to the list of actions that can constitute state treason the provision of ‘...consultative or other assistance to a foreign state, an international or foreign organization, or their representatives in activities against the security of the Russian Federation.’” The sentence had previously quoted the list of actions that can constitute state treason as, “‘financial, material and technical, consultative or other assistance to a foreign state, an international or foreign organization, or their representatives in activities against the security of the Russian Federation.’”
- On page 38, in the sentence, “It includes international organizations among the list of subjects that can be recipients of state secrets, providing that the crime was committed by a foreign citizen or a stateless person,” the clause, “providing that the crime was committed by a foreign citizen or a stateless person” has been omitted.
- On page 38, the sentence, “An explicit order from a foreign intelligence service is no longer required in order for the transfer of ‘other’ information (that is, information that does not constitute a state secret) for use against Russia’s security by a foreign national or a stateless person to be considered ‘espionage,’” has been predicated by, “such a transfer made at the behest of an individual ‘acting in the interests’ of a foreign intelligence service can now also be qualified ‘espionage.’”
- On page 38, the sentence, “The council said that the law could be used to penalize unintentional actions of a person who was not aware at the time that the information they obtained was deemed a state secret, especially if it was publicly available,” has been omitted.
- On page 46, in the sentence, “Additionally, the law prohibited cars decorated with white ribbons or other “protest symbols” from driving on the Garden Ring under threat of a fine of up to 600,000 rubles (approximately US$19,500),” the clause, “under threat of a fine of up to 600,000 rubles (approximately US$19,500),” has been omitted.
Human Rights Watch’s April 12 news release incorrectly stated that all women in Saudi Arabia require permission from their male guardian to work. Between 2011-2012, the Saudi ministry of labor issued a series of decrees that allowed women to work in certain sectors without first obtaining guardian approval. However, the decrees reinforced strict sex segregation in the workplace, mandating that female workers not interact with men. Some private sector workplaces remain exempt from these decrees.
The February 20, 2013 report contained the following errors.
- On page 42, the report incorrectly states Mónica Isabel Esquivel Castillo’s co-worker recognized two of three men who abducted her as employees at the factory in Saltillo, Torreon, where they worked. The text now correctly reads that he recognized two men, and that the factory was in Saltillo, Coahuila.
- In the text on p. 44, Human Rights Watch incorrectly stated that the abductions of sisters Perla Liliana Pecina Riojas and Elsa Judith Pecina Riojas, together with Elsa’s husband (Wilfredo Álvarez Valdez) and their two year-old child, occurred in Piedras Negras, Coahuila. The corrected text now states that they were abducted in Saltillo, Coahuila, where Pecina and Alvarez’s child was eventually found (footnote 125).
- On p. 49, Human Rights Watch incorrectly stated Uribe Hernández’s mother filed a complaint regarding missing evidence. The corrected version states that it was Uribe Hernández’s wife who filed the complaint.
- On p. 57, Human Rights Watch incorrectly stated the number of police who were detained under suspicion of their alleged participation in disappearances in Francisco I. Madero, Coahuila, and incorrectly stated that a suspect in the case had been formally charged. The corrected text now reads: “On July 8, prosecutors detained 35 police from Francisco I. Madero for their alleged participation in the June 15 disappearances, nine of whom were later charged in the crime. According to the testimony of a man who allegedly worked for a cartel and was questioned by state prosecutors in connection with the disappearance, the same police officers had also collaborated with members of the Zetas in disappearing Víctor Adrían Rodríguez Moreno, Heber Eusebio Réveles Ramos, and José María Plancarte Sagrero, at the same gas station in Francisco I. Madero, weeks earlier.”
- On p. 62 and in footnotes 209 and 281, Human Rights Watch cited an interview with Francisco Aldaco Juárez and incorrectly stated that he is the brother of victim Antonio Jaime Aldaco Juárez. The corrected text and footnotes now state that Antonio Jaime Aldaco Juárez is Francisco’s uncle.
- In the Acknowledgements section (page 149), Human Rights Watch incorrectly listed the title of Raúl Vera as archbishop. The text has been amended to list “Bishop Raúl Vera López.”
- In the first annex to the report, in the table of disappearances documented by Human Rights Watch, Human Rights Watch has corrected the locations where several disappearances allegedly occurred. The corrected table now states: the disappearances of Wifredo Álvarez Váldez, Elsa Judith Pecina Riojas, and Perla Liliana Pecina Rojas allegedly occurred in Saltillo, Coahuila; the disappearances of José Ángel Esparza León, Héctor Francisco León García, and Daniel Cantú Iris allegedly occurred in Paredon, Ramos Arizpe, Coahuila; and the disappearances of Brandon Esteban Acosta Herrera, Gualberto Acosta Rodríguez, Geraldo Acosta Rodríguez, and Esteban Geraldo Acosta Rodríguez allegedly occurred in Ramos Arizpe, Coahuila.
- On footnotes 148, 167 and 183 it incorrectly stated that Alma Garcia was a lawyer. She is a social worker.
The Russia report of February 2013 incorrectly referred to the Migration and Law Network, a program of Memorial Human Rights Center, as "Civic Assistance." The corrected sentences now read:
- p. 24: Soon after, Aliev and the other workers approached the Sochi office of the Migration and Law Network, a program of Memorial Human Rights Center, a Russian non-profit organization that provides assistance to migrant workers, in hopes of recouping some of the wages owed to them.
- p. 25: Two workers from Uzbekistan who worked for SU-45 on the Main Media center site from November 2011 to February 2012 also filed complaints with the help of the Sochi office of Memorial's Migration and Law Network to the Krasnodar Region prosecutor’s office regarding non-payment of wages and illegal dismissal in July and August 2012.
- p. 25: In December 2012, the Sochi office of Memorial's Migration and Law Network appealed to the general prosecutor’s office, which sent the complaint back to the Krasnodar Region prosecutor’s office.
- p. 66: Human Rights Watch expresses its gratitude to Semyen Semenov and Svetlana Gannushkina of the Migration and Law Network, a program of Memorial Human Rights Center, and to the staff of ASTRA Anti-Trafficking Action in Serbia, who provided invaluable assistance in the preparation of this report.
The Nigeria report of October 2012 incorrectly stated on page 51 (of the printed version) that two churches in Zaria and two churches in Kaduna were attacked on June 17, 2012. The corrected version reads: “The June 17 attacks on two churches in Zaria and a church in Kaduna killed at least 21 people and set off several days of reprisal and counter-reprisal killings between Christians and Muslims, resulting in some 80 more deaths.”
The December 2012 report contained the following errors with regard to the story of Fayegh Roorast, a Kurdish rights activist who was forced to leave Iran:
- Pgs. 41-42, the sentence that previously read, “He said Ministry of Intelligence agents began targeting him around the time of Farzad Kamangar’s execution in May 2010” has been corrected to read, “He said Ministry of Intelligence agents began targeting him around the time when the judiciary sentenced Farzad Kamangar to death, in March 2008.”
- On pg. 42, the following two sentences have been corrected: “On January 25, 2009, intelligence agents entered Roorast’s home in Mahabad and seized his personal belongings. Because Roorast was not there the agents arrested his father.” They instead read, “On January 25, 2009 intelligence agents attacked Roorast’s father’s shop and arrested his father. A little while later they entered Roorast’s home in Mahabad and seized his personal belongings, but did not arrest him at that time.”
- On pg. 43, the two following sentences have been corrected: “Authorities released him on bail during the winter of 2009. He left Iran for Iraqi Kurdistan.” The text now reads, “Authorities released him in early 2010. He left Iran for Iraqi Kurdistan later that summer.”
The June 26, 2012 report contained two errors.
- On p. 57, Human Rights Watch erroneously calculated 2000 yuan to equal $315. The amount is equivalent to $320.
- In the appendix of the report, Human Rights Watch omitted the list of questions attached to the letters sent to People’s Republic of China officials prior to the release of the report. The appendix has been amended to include the full text of the letters.
An October 27, 2012 news release citing satellite imagery identified the area that was attacked in the coastal town of Kyauk Pyu in Arakan State as a “predominantly Rohingya Muslim area.” In fact, the area that was destroyed in Kyauk Pyu was an area predominantly inhabited by ethnic Kaman Muslims. The violence in October in Arakan State involved Arakanese Buddhists with both Rohingya Muslim and Kaman Muslim communities.
An October 8, 2012 news release on the conviction of medical personnel in Bahrain incorrectly stated that on June 14, an appellate court had upheld the sentences of nine medics. In fact, the court upheld the charges but reduced the sentences against the medics.
The presser also incorrectly stated that earlier in the year, a court had quashed the sentences of nine others convicted of misdemeanor offenses, while upholding the 15-year sentences of two medics. Rather, all 11 were among the 20 medics who faced felony charges. Additionally, this ruling was also handed down on June 14, not earlier in the year.
The August 2012 report, Codifying Repression: An Assessment of Iran’s New Penal Code, incorrectly stated on page 31 of the printed English version and page 24 of the printed Persian version that “Article 220 of the new code provides that in cases where “crimes against God” are specified in the code, judges must issue sentences in accordance with Article 167 of the Iranian Constitution.” The correct sentence should read: Article 220 of the new code provides that in cases where “crimes against God” are not specified in the code, judges must issue sentences in accordance with Article 167 of the Iranian Constitution.
The July 12, 2012 news release “Syria: Evidence of Cluster Munitions Use by Syrian Forces” incorrectly states that 250-kilogram class RBK-series cluster bombs and OFAB-series fragmentation bombs can only be delivered from jet aircraft. Rotary wing aircraft, such as Mi-24 and Mi-8 series helicopters, are also capable of carrying and releasing both types of bombs.
The July 2012 report, “Hate on the Streets: Xenophobic Violence in Greece” incorrectly stated on pages 10 and 43 of the printed English version and pages 10 and 46 of the printed Greek version that Nikitas Kanakis is the director of Doctors without Borders. He is actually the director of Doctors of the World.
The January 2012 report, "Old Behind Bars: The Aging Prison Population in the United States" incorrectly stated a statistic regarding the percentage of violent offenders who recidivate for violent crimes in New York after the age of 65. In fact, between 1995 and 2008, while there were 469 prisoners in New York who had been convicted of violent offenses and who were released from prison at 65 or older, only one of them was ever returned to prison because of another violent offense; seven returned because of non-violent offenses.
The original version of the news release “Drop Charges Against Protest Participants” released on May 22, 2012, incorrectly provided the estimate of the number of persons arrested at the April 28, 2012 “Bersih 3.0” rally as “as many as 1,700.” The correct number is over 500. The 1,700 figure was an estimate of the number of persons arrested at the “Bersih 2.0” rally in July 2011.
On page 15 of the May 2012 report, “Unacknowledged Deaths: Civilian Casualties in NATO’s Air Campaign in Libya,” the caption incorrectly stated the date of the photo. The photo was taken on August 11, 2011. NATO air strikes hit the farm in Sorman and killed 13 people on June 20, 2011.
In the English and French versions of the October 2011 report “They Killed Them Like It Was Nothing,” the title of the second chapter incorrectly stated the year as 2010. The correct year is 2011.
A December 21, 2011 news release on Saif al-Islam Gaddafi’s access to a lawyer incorrectly stated that article 94 of the Rome Statute provides for postponing the execution of an ICC request for surrender. An authoritative commentary on the court’s statute makes clear that article 94 relates to requests for cooperation other than surrender, while article 89(4) pertains to requests for surrender. (March 12, 2012)
Human Rights Watch’s March 1, 2012 news release on the harassment of critics incorrectly stated that the head of the FSB for Komi Republic, Alexander Kalashnikov, issued a report in February 2012 in which he called the Komi regional branch of Memorial and the Komi branch of Golos “extremist” organizations. Mr. Kalashnikov made this statement during public remarks in January 2012. This error has been corrected. (March 1, 2012)
The English version of the China chapter of the 2012 World Report states that the date when the Chinese government said it had killed 14 Uighur attackers who had overrun a police station in Hetian as July 12. The date was incorrect -- it should be July 18.(January 22, 2012)
The English version of the Burma chapter of the 2012 World Report states that ethnic armed groups have been implicated in serious abuses, such as recruiting child soldiers, extrajudicial executions, and using antipersonnel landmines around civilian areas. Although there have been some reports of armed groups involved in extrajudicial killings, Human Rights Watch has not been able to confirm these allegations. (January 22, 2012)
The English version of the Vietnam chapter of the 2012 World Report incorrectly stated that, “Two Cao Dai activists, Nguyen Van Lia and Tran Hoai An, were arrested in April and July.” In fact, they are not Cao Dai activists, but rather Hoa Hao Buddhist activists. The corrected version should read, “Two Hoa Hao activists, Nguyen Van Lia and Tran Hoai An, were arrested in April and July.” This has been corrected in the on-line version of the chapter. (January 22, 2012)
The English version of the Turkmenistan chapter of the 2012 World Report incorrectly states that the UN Human Rights Committee expressed concern about allegations of widespread torture and ill-treatment. The correct UN body expressing concern was the United Nations Committee against Torture. Also, the English version misidentifies Batyr Berdiev as Turkmenistan's former ambassador to the Committee for Security and Co-operation in Europe; Berdiev is the former ambassador to the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe. (January 22, 2012)
The November 2011 report, “We Live as in War: Crackdown on Protestors in the Governorate of Homs,” incorrectly stated that Syria could refer the situation in the country to the International Criminal Court. In fact, Syria must first ratify the Rome Statute which created the court as a prerequisite to self-referral. In the absence of ratification, Syria could accept the ICC’s jurisdiction through a declaration under article 12.3 of the court’s treaty, allowing the ICC prosecutor to act on his own initiative and request the opening of an investigation
The July 2011 report, “Getting Away with Torture: The Bush Administration and Mistreatment of Detainees,” incorrectly stated that US officials apparently leaked a report by the International Committee of the Red Cross describing the treatment of “high value” detainees in CIA custody. In fact, the source of the leak is unknown.
The October 2011 report, "Hold Your Heart" incorrectly stated that "the International Criminal Court excluded Mt. Elgon from its remit because the issue was deemed to be too complex." In fact, the ICC prosecutor has not given a public reason for not including the crimes committed in Mt. Elgon in its Kenyan investigations to date.
The June 2011 report, "Darfur in the Shadows" misleadingly stated that the eight-year war in Darfur has killed tens of thousands of people and displaced two million more. The corrected version states that the war in Darfur has killed hundreds of thousands of people and displaced more than two million.
The September 2011 report, "The Rehab Archipelago" stated incorrectly that the US Tariff Act of 1930 had been amended in 2006. In fact the proposed amendment was referred to a Congressional committee and never became law. The statement that the US Tariff Act of 1930 specifically prohibits the import of goods and merchandise "produced or manufactured wholly or in part in any foreign country by convict labor and/or forced labor and/or indentured labor" remains accurate.
The September 2011 report, "Just Don’t Call it a Militia," acknowledged the assistance of the Afghan Analysts Network. The correct name of the group is the Afghanistan Analysts Network. The error was similarly corrected in footnotes 7, 85, and 390. The report cited the work of the author Antonio Guistozzi. His name was changed correctly in footnotes 8 and 11 to Antonio Giustozzi. Finally, the name of the German newspaper was corrected in footnote 90, 93, 386, and 390 to Der Spiegel.
The June 2011 report "My Children Have Been Poisoned" summarized in the background section previously published research on the prevalence and level of elevated blood lead among children in Zhejiang, Sichuan, and Shaanxi province. The unit of measurement for blood lead levels were misstated: values provided were in μg/L but labeled μg/dL, leading to an overstatement of average blood lead levels among children tested in these studies. These figures have been corrected and are reported in μg/dL, which is the international standard measure for blood lead testing. The prevalence of elevated blood lead among children in these studies was reported correctly, and is unchanged.
The May 2011 report, “Justice Compromised: The Legacy of Rwanda's Community-Based Gacaca Courts," was revised to correct certain factual errors. We amended page 40 to indicate that Dr. Pascal Habarugira was a doctor in the gynecology department and not the head of this department as previously reported. We also amended page 53, footnote 208, to reflect the correct name of the Rwandan Interior Minister as Abdul Karim Harelimana. Page 59 has been revised to reflect that the two victims traveling with Munyangabe’s father were intercepted on foot and not while traveling in a vehicle. The report was also revised to remove a sentence on page 51 that stated that a gacaca court convicted Odette Uwimana of involvement in the death of a Tutsi woman and that the decision was overturned on appeal. In fact, the gacaca court acquitted her and the decision was affirmed on appeal. The report incorrectly stated that Rwandan lawyer and former ICTR defense investigator Léonidas Nshogoza remained in prison in Rwanda until January 2008. Page 57 now states that Nshogoza remained in prison for more than 5 months and was released in November 2007. In addition, a sentence on page 63 has been changed to reflect that a presidential guard officer was held in the cell coordinator’s office pending trial and not the district coordinator’s office. A sentence has been removed on page 101 to reflect the fact that Béatrice Nirere had not been a member of parliament since 2003. Nirere was elected to parliament in 2008. On page 102, a sentence has been revised to read: “An RPF member who had been lower down on the RPF nominee list than Nirere (and who had therefore not been selected), instigated the case and took over Nirere’s parliamentary seat after her conviction.” Two spelling errors were also corrected in the French version of the report.
The June 14 report, A Costly Move, stated in the summary that “over 46 percent of detainees were transferred at least two times, with 3,400 people transferred 10 times or more.” The corrected version reads that “over 46 percent of transferred detainees were moved at least two times, with 3,400 people transferred 10 times or more.”
The English version of the Guinea report of May 2011 entitled “We Have Lived in Darkness” contained an error in the description of ECOWAS. The correct spelling of the description of ECOWAS is “Economic Community of West African States”. (May 31, 2011)
In the English and French versions of the report, the name of the author of the article published in the Journal of Modern African Studies, Still Standing: neighborhood wars and political stability in Guinea, was misspelled. The correct spelling her name is Alexis Arieff. (July 15, 2011)
Dans la version française du rapport de mai 2011 sur la Guinée, intitulé « Nous avons vécu dans l’obscurité : Un agenda des droits humains pour le nouveau gouvernement guinéen », la date des célébrations commémorant l’indépendance de la République de Guinée est erronée. La date correcte est le 2 octobre 2009. (31 mai 2011)
The May 9, 2011 press release incorrectly stated that, "the Convention was the first legally binding instrument that creates a comprehensive legal framework to combat violence against women through prevention, protection, prosecution, and victim support." The first legally binding international Convention specifically addressing violence against women was the Inter-American Convention on the Prevention, Punishment, and Eradication of Violence Against Women (The Convention of Belem do Para), which was adopted in 1994. The Council of Europe Convention on preventing and combating violence against women and domestic violence is, however, the first in the region and is the most comprehensive legal document to date on violence against women. This was corrected in the updated version, which reads, "The convention is the first legally binding instrument in the region that creates a comprehensive legal framework to combat violence against women through prevention, protection, prosecution, and victim support."
The April 7, 2011 press release quoted language from a final draft of the Action Plan circulated by the White House on April 6. The public version of the plan published on April 7 did not include this language. The press release was updated by removing the quotes from around the phrases, "improve the handling of crimes against union members" and "accelerate action on outstanding labor violence cases."
This 10 April 2011 press release was updated to correct the name of a victim's family, a doctor's place of employment, and minor details. Dr. El-Fortia works at the Misrata Hospital, not the Polyclinic. The original press release stated that Dr. El-Fortia told Human Rights Watch about the 15 injured people, but the information came from another doctor. Additionally, the family name Suaib was misspelled as Sueib.
The March 31 news release stated that Maher al-Gerief and two friends, Walid al-Thaib and Khalid al-Mansuri went missing while driving "with weapons" to the front line in Brega. Human Rights Watch has since confirmed that they were travelling without weapons.
The February 13 version of this news release used the term “taser.” That was meant as a generic term for stun gun and did not intend to suggest that Taser-brand products were being used. (February 14, 2011)
In the French version of the 2011 World Report chapter on Rwanda, the name of the murdered Green Party vice-president was misspelled. The correct spelling is André Kagwa Rwisereka.
The English version of the Colombia chapter of the 2011 World Report incorrectly stated that: "The government does not keep statistics for such cases, but as of May 2010, the Attorney General's Office was investigating 1,366 cases of alleged extrajudicial killings committed by state agents involving more than 2,300 victims. There have only been convictions in 63 cases." The corrected version reads that there have "only been sentences in 63 cases," rather than 63 convictions.
The English version of the Colombia chapter of the 2011 World Report incorrectly stated that: "The office has opened investigations into more than 1,300 cases (including several hundred that do not appear on the ENS list), but has only obtained convictions in 14 percent of these cases." The missing qualification, "of anti-union" violence, has been added online. The corrected version reads: "The office has opened investigations into more than 1,300 cases of anti-union violence".
The Spanish translation of the Colombia chapter of the 2011 World Report mistakenly stated that the Colombian government had "assassinated" Víctor Julio Suárez, alias "Mono Jojoy", where the correct English version states that he was killed. We apologize for the mistake and have corrected the language in the Spanish version. The corrected Spanish version reads: "In September 2010 the Colombian military killed top FARC military commander Victor Julio Suárez, alias "Mono Jojoy," responsible for numerous grave abuses during his decades of leadership." (January 25th, 2011)
The English version of the Mexico chapter of the 2011 World Report incorrectly stated that: "According to military authorities, since 2007 only one military officer has been sentenced by military courts for human rights violations." The missing qualification, "during the Calderon administration", has been added online. The corrected version reads: "According to military authorities, since 2007 only one military officer has been sentenced by military courts for human rights violations committed during the Calderon administration."
The Mexico chapter of the 2011 World Report stated that Human Rights reforms to the constitution had "not yet been approved by the house of deputies". The online version has been modified to reflect that "The House of Deputies passed its own version of the reforms in December." (January 25th, 2011)
The English version of the Burundi chapter of the 2011 World Report incorrectly states that "CNDD-FDD's election campaign relied on bribery and use of state resources, along with intimidation." The missing qualification, "in part", has been corrected online. The corrected version reads that: "CNDD-FDD's election campaign relied in part on bribery and use of state resources, along with intimidation."
The English version of the Chad chapter of the 2011 World Report incorrectly states that a joint African Union-Europe Union team presented Senegal with a proposed budget of $9 million for the Hissène Habré trial. The correct proposed budget for the trial is $11.7 million (8.59 million Euros). (January 24, 2011)
The December 2010 report "We are a Buried Generation" incorrectly names and identifies the Iranian Queer Railroad as the Canada-based rights group that provided Human Rights Watch with information regarding a home raid in the city of Shiraz on July 10, 2010 (p. 50). In fact, it was the Iranian Queer Organization (IRQO), another Canada-based rights group working on LGBT issues that was responsible for providing this information. In addition, footnote 235 incorrectly refers to IRQR as the Iranian Queer Railroad. The correct name of the organization is the Iranian Railroad for Queer Refugees. The report incorrectly names the International Gay and Lesbian Human Rights Council (IGLHRC) in the acknowledgment section of the report. The correct name of the organization is the International Gay and Lesbian Human Rights Commission. (December 22, 2010)
In an October 8, 2010 news release, Human Rights Watch stated that Mushabbab bin Ali al-Ahmari, who was executed by Saudi Arabia on January 15, 2009, was a juvenile offender. The two English language press accounts on which we relied, however, appear to have mistranslated a Saudi government statement. The Saudi statement said that the government had waited until the heirs of the individual killed by Mushabbab had turned 18, not for Mushabbab himself to turn 18. Our press release has been revised to remove the reference to this case, and to reflect that Saudi Arabia is therefore known to have executed at least two juvenile offenders in 2009. (November 2, 2010)
In a September 24, 2010 news release, Human Rights Watch noted that the Rainsy Party was launched in 1998, whereas it was actually launched in 1995. The launch date of the Party has been corrected in the news release. (September 24, 2010)
The July 8, 2010 news release, “Cambodia: Halt US Aid to Abusive Military Units,” incorrectly described Cambodia’s ACO Tank Command Headquarters in Kompong Speu province as “the host” of US-funded multi-national peacekeeping exercises conducted in Cambodia during July 2010. In fact, the Cambodian National Center for Peacekeeping Operations, Mine, and Explosive Remnants of War hosted the peacekeeping exercise, in partnership with and funding by the US government. After the US signed off in 2009 on the proposed location for the field training portion of the peacekeeping exercises at a military training base in Kompong Speu known as the ACO Tank Command Headquarters, the site was subsequently signed over to the National Center, with an official opening ceremony on May 3, 2010, according to the website of the US Embassy in Cambodia and other sources. The news release has been corrected accordingly.
The July 21, 2010 news release, “Rwanda: Allow Independent Autopsy of Opposition Politician,” incorrectly stated that Andre Kagwa Rwisereka had left some money with a relative on the evening of July 14. The correct date is July 12, 2010.
The June 2009 report, Discrimination, Denial, and Deportation did not specify that in Haiti, only criminal deportees are taken immediately to jail and held indefinitely. The report has been corrected accordingly.
The May 2010 report, "We'll Tie You Up and Shoot You," was revised to correct the location of Kinama commune. Kinama is in Bujumbura. A number of spelling errors in French terms were also corrected.
The April 2010 report, “Turning a Blind Eye,” incorrectly stated the release date of the report of UN Fact Finding Mission on the Gaza Conflict as September 25, 2009. The correct date is September 15, 2010.
The January 2010 report, “Where Darkness Knows No Limits,” incorrectly stated that China's June 2008 Anti-Drug Law provides for a period of “community based” treatment of up to four years following on two or three years in a drug detention center, for a total of up to seven years’ incarceration and forced labor. In fact, the law provides for a period of “community based” treatment of up to only three years, meaning that a suspected drug user may be subjected to incarceration and forced labor for a total of only six years, not seven. The report has been corrected accordingly.
Human Rights Watch has updated this December 30, 2009 article following suggestions that the quote of former Foreign Minister Tzipi Livni ("On my way here I heard that Hamas declared the man killed by a rocket in Ashkelon ‘one of the Zionists' despite being an Israeli Arab. They don't make a distinction, and neither should we.") is ambiguous on whether she meant that Israel will not distinguish between combatants and civilians. Other statements from Livni and former Prime Minister Ehud Olmert support the argument, and one from Olmert has been added here.
In a December 23, 2009 press release concerning the need to protect witnesses in Colombia, Human Rights Watch noted that in one case, involving the Pablo Escobar neighborhood in Medellin, five witnesses had been killed in recent months. Human Rights Watch later received more precise information indicating that only one of the deceased was an active witness in a criminal case. Other victims were current or former residents of the neighborhood, and the son of a witness. The press release has been corrected accordingly.
In this October 1, 2009 letter on Yemen's humanitarian situation and the accompanying October 5 media release, Human Rights Watch said that Yemen's government and the Huthis, a rebel group, had not responded to United Nations calls to establish humanitarian corridors. In fact, the Huthis announced in e-mails sent to international humanitarian organizations and news outlets their readiness to do so on September 4, and again on September 15, 2009. We apologize for the mistake. (November 20, 2009)
In This May 14, 2009 news release, Human Rights Watch originally cited civilian deaths in Afghanistan during airstrikes by US forces conducted on May 3, 2009. The date of May 3 was initially reported by the US military and in the international media; however, the airstrikes actually occurred on May 4, 2009. (August 14, 2009) US: Clinton Should Stress Human Rights on Africa Trip
In a July 31, 2009 press release and a July 30, 2009 letter concerning Secretary of State Clinton's visit to Africa, Human Rights Watch did not specify that it was refugees and asylum seekers who were the target of abuse by the Angolan armed forces. The letter and press release have been corrected accordingly.
In a July 13, 2009 news release, Human Rights Watch quoted article 24 of the Deoxyribonucleic Acid (DNA) Identification Act. However, the article was deleted from the version of the bill passed by the lower house of Malaysia’s parliament. To date, the Senate has not passed the bill. Human Rights Watch has deleted the inaccurate referral from its news release. (July 15, 2009)
In this June 19, 2009 news release a clause was inadvertently deleted from the sentence that describes mandatory installation. It should have read, “Despite domestic and international criticism, the Chinese government has apparently not reversed its initial demand that companies pre-install or otherwise include Green Dam on all personal computers by July 1.” The open letters to companies that accompanied this release did include such language to more accurately describe the Chinese government’s notification. (June 23, 2009)
The April 2009 report “Uniform Impunity” incorrectly states that the husband of Inés Fernandez Ortega has forced her to leave their home. The report has been corrected accordingly.
In this April 23, 2009 news release, Human Rights Watch quoted Kamal al Jizouli as a prominent journalist for the Sudanese newspaper Ajras al-Huriya. However, al Jizouli is in fact a lawyer and a columnist for the newspaper, and so his title has been changed as such. (Arabic Correction)
In this April 16, 2009 news release, Human Rights Watch compared the killing of a prominent Burundian activist to the 2001 killing of Dr. Kassy Manlan, the Ivoirian representative of the World Health Organization in Burundi. However, because some facts of the Manlan case remain unclear, we have deleted references to it.
The Arabic translation of the January 21, 2009 media statement, “Gaza Crisis: Regimes React with Routine Repression,” mistakenly stated that the Jordanian government “systematically” denies permission for demonstrations critical of Jordanian foreign policy, where the correct English version speaks of “routine” denials. We apologize for the mistake and have corrected the language in the Arabic version.
Furthermore, both the Iranian and Jordanian governments did allow many demonstrations against the war in Gaza to proceed. In Iran, the government allowed demonstrations nationwide to give voice to public outrage against Israeli actions in Gaza and support for the government’s rallying call for Palestinian rights. In Jordan, the government states that over 600 demonstrations against Israeli actions in Gaza took place. Nevertheless, at least one protest in Iran and two protests in Jordan met with police beatings and dispersal. (February 9, 2009 | Arabic Correction)
On August 21, 2008, Human Rights Watch reported a series of attacks with cluster munitions around four towns and villages in Georgia's Gori district. Human Rights Watch attributed all the strikes to Russian forces, but upon further investigation has concluded that the origin of the cluster munitions found on August 20 in two of the villages - Shindisi and Pkhvenisi - cannot yet be determined.
In the Acknowledgements section (page 122) of the June 2008 report, "Neighbors in Need," Human Rights Watch misspelled the name of Tobias Hlambelo, who helped Human Rights Watch conduct interviews with Zimbabweans in South Africa.
This April 16, 2008, news release was revised to correct a sentence that stated that nine Italian defendants are involved in the Milan prosecution. Instead, seven Italian defendants are involved, two had plea bargained.
Subsequent to the release of this press release, Human Rights Watch received new information indicating that Dilmurod Muhiddinov may have not been amnestied and has not been released from prison. Human Rights Watch is currently trying to confirm Muhiddinov's status and will provide additional updates as appropriate.
Human Rights Watch also learned that Bahodir Mukhtarov was released from prison on November 17, 2007 and not on February 4, 2008 as reported. (February 7, 2008)
In a media statement released on August 15, 2007, Human Rights Watch described the National Center for Human Rights as "government-controlled." The Jordanian government appoints the Center's board members and sets a budget for its running costs, but the Center's work has shown its commitment to the protection and promotion of human rights and independence from government control. It would be more appropriate to describe the Center as the "governmental National Center for Human Rights." We apologize for this inaccurate description. (September 6, 2007 | Arabic Correction)
This August 22, 2007, press release was revised to remove a sentence that incorrectly stated that three members of the Myanmar Development Committee (MDC), including MDC leader Ko Htin Kyaw, were arrested on August 21, 2007, following MDC's call for nationwide protests against a major fuel price hike. Instead, Htin Kyaw went into hiding on that date. He was subsequently arrested in Rangoon, together with a second activist, on August 25, 2007, after a city-wide manhunt by authorities. (August 27, 2007)
Although a July 8, 2007 article by Kenneth Roth, entitled "Tap, tap, tap to wear down the terrorists" and accompanying photo caption published in the London Observer, suggested that the Karachi safe house of Al Qaeda's Khaled Sheikh Mohammed was discovered because a journalist who had interviewed him passed on critical information regarding his whereabouts, Mr. Roth did not say or intend to say that the journalist in question - Al Jazeera chief investigative reporter Yosri Fouda - provided any information to the authorities. As Mr. Fouda notes, Khaled Sheikh Mohammed was, furthermore, arrested in Rawalpindi (rather than Karachi) almost a full 11 months after the interview. We apologize to Mr. Fouda.
The June 2007 report, In the Name of Prevention: Insufficient Safeguards in National Security Removals, was revised to correct the date of Adel Tebourski's conviction for a terrorism-related offense on p. 42. The date of his conviction should be May 2005. In addition, the text now clarifies on p. 42 that the ministerial expulsion order against Tebourski was issued on July 22, 2006. We also amended the text on p. 2 and p. 39 to clarify that Mahfoud Brada was criminally deported from France following a conviction for rape. (Published July 24, 2007)
Le rapport publié en juin 2007, Au nom de la prévention: Des garanties insuffisantes concernant les éloignements pour des raisons de sécurité nationale, a été révisé pour corriger la date de la condamnation d'Adel Tebourski pour un délit lié au terrorisme, p. 42. La date de sa condamnation devrait être mai 2005. En outre, le texte indique maintenant clairement en p. 42 que l'arrêté ministériel d'expulsion contre M. Tebourski a été émis le 22 juillet 2006. Nous avons modifié le texte en p. 2 et p. 39 pour indiquer clairement que Mahfoud Brada a fait l'objet d'un éloignement de la France dans un contexte pénal à la suite d'une condamnation pour viol.
This June 2007 press release reported that on the night of Sunday, June 10, 2007, Fatah military forces shot and captured Muhammad al-Ra'fati, a Hamas supporter and mosque preacher, and threw him from a Gaza City high-rise apartment building.
Muhammad al-Ra'fati was captured, shot, and executed by Fatah forces as the press release states. However, he was not thrown from a Gaza City high-rise building. Fatah military forces threw a different person, 30-year-old Hosam Abu Qainas, to his death from a Gaza City high-rise building that evening.
The June 2007 report, "No One Has the Liberty to Refuse", misspelled the name of a town in Qinghai province, Mangra, as well as mistaking a prefecture for a region on the map situated on page 1. The map should read: ‘Mangra' and ‘Tibet Autonomous Region.' See http://www.hrw.org/reports/2007/tibet0607/1.htm#_Toc168745896 (Published June 14, 2007)
This May 2007, press release states that Uzbek human rights defender Gulbahor Turaeva received a prison sentence of five years and eight months, following her second trial on new slander charges. According to a May 13, 2007 statement by the Uzbek Foreign Ministry, Turaeva's sentence for both the April 24, 2007 conviction and the May 7 conviction is a total of six years of imprisonment and a fine of 648,000 soms, or about U.S. $648.
Turaeva's husband was in the courtroom for the reading of the second verdict against his wife on May 7 but was not provided with a written copy of this verdict.
Human Rights Watch maintains that Turaeva has been prosecuted on politically motivated charges and should be immediately and unconditionally released. She is appealing her sentence. (Published May 14, 2007)
The March 2007 report, The "Stamp of Guantanamo": The Story of Seven Men Betrayed by Russia's Diplomatic Assurances to the United States, was revised to correct the date of the letter to US officials in Appendix I on page 45. The date of the letter should be September 27, 2006. See http://www.hrw.org/reports/2007/russia0307/8.htm#_Toc162429437 (Published April 24, 2007)
This March 2007 press release incompletely identified the corporate affiliation of the fourteen executives who are being prosecuted in Seoul on charges of illegally exporting weapons equipment and technology used to build an arms factory in Burma. Prosecutors accuse Daewoo International of being the lead company in the project, but it is not the case that all fourteen of the accused worked for that company. The former president and chief executive of Daewoo International, Lee Tae-yong, is on trial together with executives from a total of seven firms. (Published April 4, 2007)
The February 2007 report, "Ghost Prisoner: Two Years in CIA Detention", misspelled the name of a prisoner, Majid Khan, on page 22. The sentence should read: "It said: ‘Majid Khan, 15 December 2004, American-Pakistani.'" See http://hrw.org/reports/2007/us0207/2.htm#_Toc159752299 (Published March 23, 2007)
The February 2007 backgrounder, "Survey of Cluster Munition Policy and Practice" incorrectly references the Swiss Federal Department of Foreign Affairs as the Swedish Federal Department of Foreign Affairs. The information referenced on pages 55 and 56 in footnotes 257-259, 261, and 262 was obtained through communication from the Swiss Federal Department of Foreign Affairs, Directorate of International Law, to Pax Christi Netherlands, June 7, 2005. (Published: March 5, 2007)
The World Report 2007 chapter on Turkmenistan incorrectly stated that the former mufti of Turkmenistan, sentenced in 2004 to 22 years in prison on charges of anti-government activities, had been amnestied. According to Forum 18, a religious freedom organization based in Norway, "No verified information on the whereabouts or state of health" of the mufti has been received "since he was sentenced to 22 years' imprisonment at a closed trial in Ashgabad in March 2004. Relatives say rumours he was freed at the time of last October's prisoner amnesty are not true." (February 21, 2007)
The June 2006 report, Too High a Price: The Human Rights Cost of the Indonesian Military's Economic Activities, was revised to remove a phrase that incorrectly quoted from a 2001 law on foundations. The revised sentence, at p. 31, reads: "That law specified that foundations could take part in business activities only indirectly through related entities whose activities were consistent with the foundation's designated social (or religious or humanitarian) purpose."
We also amended text at p. 77 to indicate that Newsweek "reported" (rather than "revealed") the alleged extortion by Indonesian soldiers of tsunami victims seeking to board an evacuation flight. The corresponding footnote was changed to indicate that an investigation by New Zealand authorities, whose air force operated the flight, did not uncover evidence to substantiate the allegation. The earlier edition stated that their investigation was inconclusive. (February 15, 2007)
The November 2005 Human Rights Watch report Ukraine On the Margins - Rights Violations against Migrants and Asylum-seekers at the New Eastern Border of the European Union was amended in January 2007 to correct errors. The original version of the report incorrectly characterized the role of the International Organization for Migration (IOM) in Ukraine. The section on IOM has been removed. The information in the corrected report was accurate as of November 2005. A related December 2005 Human Rights Watch statement to the IOM Governing Council has been removed permanently from the HRW website. (February 1, 2007)
In the December 2006 report "Weighing the Evidence: Lessons from the Slobodan Milosevic Trial" there is a mistaken reference to Bosnian Serbs where it should have stated Bosnian Croats. On page 11 of the report, the sentence should read: "The Bosnia indictment similarly alleges that Milosevic participated in a joint criminal enterprise, the aim of which was the forcible removal of Bosnian Muslims and Bosnian Croats from large areas of Bosnia and Herzegovina." See http://hrw.org/reports/2006/milosevic1206/3.htm#_Toc153263142 (Published January 16, 2007)
The World Report 2007 chapter on Bahrain incorrectly stated that the Bahrain Human Rights Society (BHRS) was established by the government of Bahrain in 2002. The BHRS is in fact an independent association whose activities the government authorized in 2002. The chapter also incorrectly stated that Bahrain was not a state party to the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights; Bahrain acceded to the ICCPR on September 20, 2006. (Published: January 16, 2007)
The Arabic translation to the September 2006 report Suspicious Sweeps - The General Intelligence Department and Jordan's Rule of Law Problem contains an error. In the report, we mention an Iraqi woman "who may be related by marriage to Nidal `Arabiyyat, one of the key Jordanian followers of the late Abu Mus`ab al-Zarqawi." This was rendered to Arabic to suggest, incorrectly, that she was the wife of Nidal `Arabiyyat. See http://hrw.org/arabic/reports/2006/jordan0906/3.htm#_Toc145925921 (Published: November 15, 2006)
The September 2006 report Croatia: A Decade of Disappointment - Continuing Obstacles to the Reintegration of Serb Returnees contains an error, which arose from a misunderstanding about information provided to Human Rights Watch by a judge. Pages 12 and 14 of the report wrongly states that there was a pending case in the Knin municipal court against Ante Pesic for allegedly beating another man in a bar in Devrske village, Croatia, in January 2006. Although police filed criminal charges against Mr. Pesic in connection with the alleged incident, the case was never brought. (Published: October 25, 2006)