China’s authoritarian government under the Chinese Communist Party systemically represses fundamental rights. Under President Xi Jinping, the government has arbitrarily detained human rights defenders, tightened control over civil society, media, and the internet, and deployed invasive mass surveillance technology. It imposes particularly heavy-handed control in Xinjiang and Tibet. Authorities’ cultural persecution and arbitrary detention of a million Uyghurs and other Turkic Muslims since 2017 amount to crimes against humanity. In Hong Kong, the government imposed draconian national security legislation in 2020 and systematically dismantled the city’s freedoms.  The government hindered international efforts to investigate human rights violations and the origins of Covid-19, muzzled critics abroad, and undermined global human rights institutions.