Malaysia’s Prime Minister Anwar Ibrahim has largely failed to uphold his campaign pledges to address repression and corruption since taking office in November 2022. Authorities continue to use broad and vaguely worded laws to criminalize free speech. Officials have targeted refugees and migrants as well as lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) people with hateful rhetoric and crackdowns. The government’s abolition of the mandatory death penalty in 2023 was a significant step, although capital punishment remains a sentencing option. Indigenous communities continue to be displaced by business activities carried out without adequate consultation or compensation.

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