Although a resource-rich country, almost 40 percent of Papua New Guinea’s population lives in poverty. The Covid-19 pandemic highlighted ongoing challenges with government inaction, economic mismanagement, and a severely under-resourced healthcare system. Before Covid-19 started spreading, Papua New Guinea was already struggling with outbreaks of measles, drug-resistant tuberculosis, and polio with poor vaccination rates. Weak implementation of laws on violence against women and children foster a culture of impunity. Prime Minister James Marape has committed to reforms to address gender-based violence, but little real progress has been made.