Australia has a strong record of protecting civil and political rights, but serious human rights issues remain. Australia continues to hold refugees and asylum seekers who arrived by boat in Australian waters on Manus Island in Papua New Guinea and on Nauru, marking more than five years since the reintroduction of its draconian offshore processing policy. Indigenous Australians are significantly overrepresented in the criminal justice system, often for minor offenses like unpaid fines. Other human rights concerns include the neglect and abuse of prisoners with disabilities, abuses in juvenile detention centers, and legislation that would undermine strong encryption and cybersecurity.