The 30th anniversary of the Somali state collapse was marked in 2021. Civilians in Somalia continue to bear the brunt of violations of international humanitarian law – some amounting to war crimes – perpetrated by all parties to the long-running armed conflict between Al-Shabab and government forces. Children continued to absorb the heavy toll of ongoing insecurity and conflict; all parties to the conflict committed rights abuses against children including use of child soldiers, attacks on schools, killings, and maimings. In 2021, the United Nations reported an increase in sexual and gender-based violence, which often resulted in the death of victims. Effective response to the escalating sexual and gender-based violence stalled as federal authorities failed to pass progressive sexual violence legislation.

In March 2022, the African Union mandated the African Union Transition Mission in Somalia (ATMIS) to replace the African Union Mission in Somalia (AMISOM) in providing support to the Somali government in the implementation of its Transition Plan, including the transfer of security responsibilities to the Somali security forces and institutions.

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