Civilians continue to bear the brunt of abuses committed by the Islamist armed group Al-Shabab and government forces in the country’s long-running armed conflict. Survivors of conflict-related sexual and gender-based violence lack adequate redress. In 2022, the country faced a devastating food crisis following five consecutive below-average rainy seasons. Ongoing conflict, extreme weather patterns—increasing in intensity and frequency due to climate change—compounded by food-price hikes, exacerbated existing vulnerabilities. Authorities in Somaliland continued to restrict free expression, media, and association.


map of Somalia