On October 30, 2017, the Independent Electoral and Boundaries Commission (IEBC) declared Uhuru Kenyatta the winner of the presidential elections. On September 1, the Supreme Court nullified the August 8 election and ordered a revote within 60 days. The elections were marred by serious human rights violations by Kenyan security forces, who used excessive force to break up protests and carry out house-to-house operations in opposition strongholds. More than 100 people were unlawfully killed by police and pro-government gangs in Nairobi and western region. Kenyan authorities have consistently failed to adequately investigate a range of abuses, including threats to free expression and association.