World Court Finds Israel Responsible for Apartheid

The International Court of Justice (ICJ) issued an advisory opinion on July 19, 2024, with significant consequences for human rights protections in Palestine under Israel’s 57-year occupation. The opinion stems from a December 2022 request by the United Nations General Assembly to the court to consider the legal consequences of Israel’s policies and practices in the Occupied Palestinian Territory.

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For the past nine months, Human Rights Watch has continued to document ongoing atrocity crimes and human rights violations in Palestine and Israel. For this report, we analyzed over 280 videos and photographs that, combined with witness accounts, helped to identify exactly what happened on October 7, where and when and to whom, as well as who was responsible. The purpose of this research was to bring facts to light and support accountability efforts by documenting the abuses committed on October 7 and identifying those responsible. 

Photographs of Israelis taken as hostages during an October 7 attack by Hamas-led fighters, at a protest demanding their release, outside the HaKirya military base in Tel Aviv, Israel, on October 17, 2023. 

Human Rights Watch research found that Palestinian armed groups involved in the assault on Israel on October 7, 2023, committed numerous violations of international humanitarian law – also known as the laws of war – that amount to war crimes.