Under President Abdel Fattah al-Sisi, Egyptian police and National Security agents have routinely used torture and enforced disappearances against both criminal suspects and perceived political opponents with near impunity. In North Sinai, the military has committed serious abuses, likely including extrajudicial killings, in its campaign against an affiliate of the extremist group Islamic State, whose fighters have targeted suspected civilian collaborators and Christians for death. Prosecutions, travel bans and asset freezes against human rights defenders, in addition to repressive new legislation, threaten to effectively eradicate independent civil society. The government denies workers the right to organize independent unions and prosecutes those who participate in strikes.