In May 2018, Lebanon held parliamentary elections for the first time since 2009. Public critique of authorities has resulted in prosecutions, threatening freedom of speech and security forces are cracking down on LGBT activities. Detainees report torture and ill-treatment despite the passage of a 2017 law criminalizing torture. Open burning of waste is threatening the health of nearby residents, despite the passage of a law prohibiting the practice in late 2018. Parliament repealed a law that allowed rapists to escape prosecution by marrying the victim, but women continue to face systematic discrimination and violence. Approximately 74 percent of the estimated 1.5 million Syrian refugees lack legal status, restricting their movement and access to work, healthcare, and education.