While the Syrian government, with its allies’ support, has regained significant territory using tactics that violate the laws of war, areas under its control also are rife with abuse. Security services arbitrarily arrest and torture hundreds, and millions are going hungry due to the government’s diversion of aid and failure to equitably address a crippling economic crisis. In Idlib, the last anti-government territory, despite a ceasefire, the Syrian-Russian military alliance still poses a threat to over 3 million civilians trapped there, while the dominant anti-government armed group restricts their freedoms. In Turkish-occupied territories, Turkey and local factions are abusing civilians’ rights with impunity. Following ISIS’s territorial defeat in northeast Syria, Kurdish-led authorities and the US-led coalition have yet to provide compensation for civilian casualties, offer support for identifying the fate of those kidnapped by ISIS, or justly address the tens of thousands that are trapped in camps and prisons, leading to a deteriorating security situation and risks of re-radicalization. Economic crises exacerbated by the onset of Covid-19 have had debilitating effects on living conditions across the country.