President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva took office in January 2023 after a campaign marred with political violence. Shortly after, a crowd of supporters of former president Jair Bolsonaro stormed Congress, the Supreme Court, and the Presidential Palace, calling for a coup. Rapid deforestation and fires are pushing the Amazon rainforest to a tipping point from which it may not recover. Forest defenders face threats and violence. Police killings continue at very high levels, disproportionately impacting Black Brazilians. Many prisons are severely overcrowded, leaving detainees vulnerable to violence and recruitment by gangs. Gender-based violence remains a chronic problem.

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