Eritrea’s government is extremely repressive, subjecting its population to widespread forced labor and conscription, imposing restrictions on freedom of expression, opinion, and faith, and restricting independent scrutiny by international monitors. As a one-man dictatorship under President Isaias Afewerki, Eritrea has no legislature, no independent civil society organizations or media outlets, and no independent judiciary. Throughout 2021, Eritrean Defense Forces (EDF) committed war crimes and other abuses against civilians in Ethiopia's Tigray region, including: large-scale massacres, summary executions, widespread sexual violence, widespread pillage, attacks on refugee camps, and destruction and pillaging of crops.