In August 2020, a political crisis resulted in the toppling of Mali's government in a military coup. The country's human rights situation remains fragile amid ongoing abuses by armed Islamist groups, ethnically allied militias, and government security forces. Civilians continue to absorb the heavy cost of violence from all sides, with the near-total impunity for abuses exacerbating an already precarious humanitarian situation. 

Armed Islamist groups continued to target civilians in killings, kidnapping, threats, and forced recruitment. In response, Malian government security and allied forces have carried out extrajudicial killings, enforced disappearances, torture, and arbitrary arrests and detentions of suspected armed fighters.