Sudan’s democratic transition remains fragile with limited progress on key human rights reforms and impunity for perpetrators of past and current abuses, including the Rapid Support Forces, is still the norm. Nationwide protests have been taking place against a backdrop of a deteriorating economic situation and increasing political tension.

Following the UN Security Council’s decision to terminate the mandate of the African Union/ UN hybrid mission in Darfur (UNAMID), intercommunal violence increased in the western region of Darfur. The new UN political mission established to support the political transition had no mandate to provide physical protection to civilians.

Despite Sudan’s leaders pledge to cooperate with the International Criminal Court former president al-Bashir and two other ICC indictees remain in detention in Khartoum. Ali Kushayb, a former Janjaweed leader, surrendered to the Hague on June 9, 2020.