On 25 October, 2021, Sudan’s military leader, General Abdel Fattah al-Burhan, took control of the government in a coup, and initially detained several civilian government officials, including civilian Prime Minister Abdalla Hamdok. Sudanese protesters have been met with violence by government security forces including killings, enforced disappearances, torture, sexual violence against women, beatings, arrests, and detentions. Hamdok, who was reinstated in November 2021, resigned in January 2022, citing Sudan’s slide towards a "dangerous turning point that threatens its whole survival," leaving the military in full control. The political instability has stalled efforts towards human rights improvements and security sector reforms.

Following the UN Security Council’s decision to terminate the mandate of the African Union-United Nations hybrid mission in Darfur (UNAMID), violence continued in Darfur, with a notable uptick in the western region.

On April 15, 2022, the trial of Ali Kosheib at the International Criminal Court began. Kosheib is charged with 31 counts of war crimes and crimes against humanity committed in 2003 and 2004. Arrest warrants against ex-president al-Bashir and two of his associates remain outstanding.