Respect for human rights continued to decline during Emmerson Mnangagwa’s presidency. In 2021, security forces committed serious human rights abuses with impunity. As political activities pick up ahead of the 2023 national elections, efforts to secure justice for the August 2018 post-election violence and abuses including killings, abductions, and persecution of government opponents and critics perpetrated by security services stalled in 2021. The government failed to establish an independent complaint system to receive and investigate public complaints security forces —as set out in the constitution.