The outbreak of conflict in the Tigray region in November 2020 has resulted in numerous human rights and laws-of-war violations. In Tigray, Ethiopian and allied forces carried out massacres, sexual violence, and deliberate attacks on civilian objects and infrastructure. In the Western Tigray Zone, Amhara security forces have carried out an ethnic cleansing campaign against Tigrayan population.

Since June 2021, Ethiopian authorities have effectively besieged Tigray, blocking food, medical supplies, and fuel from entering the region, while maintaining a blanket shutdown of basic services. Outside of Tigray, Ethiopian authorities have forcibly disappeared scores of ethnic Tigrayans. Tigrayan forces have also committed killings, rape, and other grave abuse against Eritrean refugees in Tigray. In July 2021, the conflict spilled over into the Amhara and Afar regions. Tigrayan forces carried out summary executions, sexual violence, and looting against Amhara civilians.

Insecurity persisted in other regions, notably Oromia and Benishangul-Gumuz, with government security force operations against armed groups resulting in serious abuses and an uptake in attacks against minority communities by armed groups.

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