Thousands of civilians have been killed, often because of their ethnicity or perceived political alliances in South Sudan’s ongoing conflict. More than 3 million people have been forced to flee their homes. Large parts of key towns and essential civilian infrastructure such as clinics, hospitals, and schools, have been looted, destroyed, and abandoned. Half a million people are still sheltering in United Nations compounds, and hundreds of thousands in refugee camps. The government has also become increasingly intolerant and repressive, arbitrarily arresting politicians, members of civil society and journalists for extended periods, sometimes years. Lack of accountability for decades of violence during Sudan’s long civil war continues to fuel the conflict, and despite a fragile peace agreement in 2015, leaders on all sides have failed to reduce abuses by their forces and hold them to account.