The historic 2016 peace agreement between the government of Colombia and the Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia (FARC) creates an opening for improvements in human rights. Yet, the agreement could allow senior military and guerrilla commanders to escape meaningful accountability, and such groups as the National Liberation Army (ELN) and successor groups to paramilitaries that emerged after an official demobilization process a decade ago are not party to the agreement and continue to commit abuses. Violence associated with the armed conflict has forcibly displaced millions. Rights defenders, indigenous and Afro-Colombian leaders, and other community activists face threats and violence, and perpetrators are rarely held accountable.