The decades-long armed conflict between the Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia (FARC) and the government officially ended with a peace accord in 2016, but the National Liberation Army (ELN) guerrillas, groups that emerged from the FARC and successor groups to paramilitaries that emerged after an official demobilization process over a decade ago continue to commit serious abuses. Rights defenders, Indigenous and Afro-Colombian leaders, and other community activists face constant threats and violence. Violence associated with the armed conflict has forcibly displaced millions and impunity for grave abuses remains a serious concern. Police used excessive and often brutal force in response to mostly peaceful demonstrations occurring between 2019 and 2021. High levels of poverty, especially among Indigenous and Afro-descendant communities, remains a serious human rights concern.

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