Political upheaval and widespread killings by the security forces and armed opposition groups gripped the country, after demonstrations broke out in April 2015 in response to President Pierre Nkurunziza’s decision to seek a third electoral term. Police used excessive force and shot demonstrators indiscriminately. Killings escalated after July’s disputed presidential election that returned Nkurunziza to power. Government forces, armed opposition groups, and unknown assailants killed hundreds of people.  The authorities arrested hundreds of suspected opponents, in many cases arbitrarily.  The government launched a crackdown against civil society activists and journalists.  It closed the four most popular private radio stations and suspended the activities and froze the bank accounts of ten civil society organisations. Leading human rights activist Pierre Claver Mbonimpa was seriously injured in an assassination attempt in August 2015.