During 2017, the rights climate deteriorated in Mali as the peace process envisioned to end the 2012-2013 political-military crisis stalled and insecurity worsened. Islamist armed groups increased attacks on government forces and UN peacekeepers and committed frequent abuses against the population, including summary executions. The spread of militant attacks into Burkina Faso and Niger led to the creation of the G5 Sahel Joint Force, consisting of Mali, Niger, Burkina Faso, Chad and Mauritania. Counterterrorism operations by Malian security forces have resulted in arbitrary arrests, summary executions, and ill-treatment in custody. Rule-of-law institutions remained weak and there was little progress in ensuring justice for victims of serious violations committed during and since Mali’s 2012-2013 armed conflict.