National Program article 1.2.1 deals with Freedom of Thought and Expression. Where the European Union
(E.U.) document called for action to strengthen guarantees related to the right to freedom of expression, the
National Program merely undertakes to "review" legislation. Moreover, the proviso that Article 312 of the Turkish
Criminal Code (which deals with incitement to hatred on the basis of race or religion) will be reviewed "without
prejudice to values protected therein" echoes the preamble to this section, which emphasizes adherence to the
secular and unitary character of the Republic. The formulation is far from clear but suggests that references to
political or cultural organization on the basis of ethnic or religious identity will continue to be criminalized.