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European Union efforts to shift responsibility for migration to countries beyond EU borders threaten the human rights of migrants, asylum seekers, and refugees. Current EU migration polices are largely focused on keeping migrants and asylum seekers outside EU borders. However, these policies have failed to ensure that the rights of migrants and asylum seekers are respected, particularly in neighboring transit countries to the east or across the Mediterranean. This paper concentrates on the less well-known “external” dimension of the EU’s efforts, which rely on a mixture of assistance and pressure in order to shift responsibility for refugees, migrants, and asylum-seekers to transit countries, such as Ukraine or Libya, and regions of origin.

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