Eswatini (formerly Swaziland)
In 2021, Eswatini, an absolute monarchy ruled by King Mswati III since 1986, was rocked by waves of protests amid a drastic deterioration in the human rights situation and lack of reforms. The authorities responded by banning protests and deployed police and soldiers who shot at protesters indiscriminately with live ammunition. A 1973 decree banning political parties remains in force. Despite the adoption of the 2005 constitution which guarantees basic rights and the country’s international human rights commitments, the king continues to exercise absolute power to appoint the prime minister and cabinet, and to dissolve the Parliament.