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The Honorable President Joe Biden
President of the United States
1600 Pennsylvania Avenue NW
Washington, DC 20500

The Honorable Antony Blinken
Secretary of State
U.S. State Department
2201 C Street NW
Washington, DC 20037

The Honorable Alejandro Mayorkas
Secretary of Homeland Security
U.S. Department of Homeland Security
2801 Nebraska Avenue, NW
Washington, DC 20528

March 26, 2024

Dear President Biden, Secretary Blinken, and Secretary Mayorkas:

Haitian Bridge Alliance and the undersigned 481 immigration, human rights, faith-based, and civil rights organizations write to request an extension and redesignation of the Republic of Haiti for Temporary Protected Status (TPS) and a moratorium on deportations to the Republic of Haiti. Today, in the absence of a functioning state, armed groups terrorize the population with systematic rape, indiscriminate kidnapping, and mass killing, all with impunity. As Secretary of State Anthony Blinken acknowledged last month, in January 2024 alone,

“more than 1,100 people were killed, injured, or kidnapped in the country. Gangs now control 80 percent of the capital, Port-au-Prince. Armed groups use sexual assault and rape to terrorize the population. The violence has also had the effect of blocking trade routes and aid routes, and shuttered schools. Criminal groups have cut off access to food, to clean water, to health care, to electricity. Half the country is eating just one meal a day. Three million children need immediate humanitarian aid. And the conflict is spreading north to Haiti’s breadbasket, threatening the food supply for the entire country.”[1]

Scores of people have been killed and more than 15,000 have been forced to flee their homes since coordinated gang attacks began on February 29. An estimated 362,000 Haitians are currently internally displaced throughout the country. [2] Gangs infiltrated and attacked Haiti’s major airports and seaports, which has prevented de facto Prime Minister Ariel Henry from returning to the country from a trip to Kenya and ultimately led to his commitment to resign once a council is appointed for a transition of power. [3][4] On March 3, gangs organized prison breaks in Haiti’s two main prisons, freeing an estimated 4,500 prisoners.[5] Gangs torched or looted police stations around the country and killed several police officers, rendering Haitian police too powerless or too scared to control the outpour of prisoners.[6] Witnesses say the streets of Port-au-Prince reek with the stench of the dead, as corpses pile up too quickly to bury.[7]

Haiti is still designated as a level 4, do not travel, by the State Department.[8] On March 10, U.S. Marines flew helicopters into Port-au-Prince in the middle of the night to airlift non-essential embassy personnel and bolster embassy security.[9] If the United States cannot keep its personnel safe in Haiti, then the Haitian government is unlikely to keep Haitian nationals safe.

Haiti’s spiraling political and security crisis was foreseeable and the outproduct of over 220 years of foreign intervention. Since Haiti abolished slavery and declared independence in 1804, colonial powers, including the United States, have tried to control and exploit the country through military force, neo-liberal economic policies, and political interference. As suggested by former Special Rapporteur on Contemporary Forms of Racism, Racial Discrimination, Xenophobia and Related Intolerance E. Tendayi Achiume, migration and forced displacement must be analyzed with the added context of a lack of global reparatory justice for slavery, colonialism, and neo-colonial imperialism, as well as ongoing violations against the right to self-determination for majority Black countries such as Haiti.[10] Moving forward, the United States must address the root causes of Haiti’s security and humanitarian crisis. The U.S. government should not only let Haitians come together to make their way out of the current crisis but also provide ways for Haitian refugees forced to flee to safely seek protection.

In response to Haiti’s extreme insecurity, we ask the Biden administration to urgently consider the following actions:

Extend and redesignate Haiti for TPS
The existing TPS designation for Haiti is set to expire on August 4, 2024. All the conditions leading to the Biden administration’s original TPS redesignations on December 5, 2022, and August 3, 2021, in addition to the deteriorating crisis described herein, exhibit temporary and extraordinary conditions that make a safe return to Haiti impossible. The undersigned organizations request that the Biden administration consider redesignating Haiti for TPS as soon as possible.

Redesignation will allow protection against removal and eligibility for work authorization to all eligible Haitians in the United States. The current TPS recipients from Haiti in the United States, many of whom have been here for decades and have children who are U.S. citizens, have also become essential to our economy and our morale as a country.

Moreover, TPS promotes recovery, development, and regional stability by preserving and increasing the flow of remittances to Haiti and directly into the pockets of people who can use the money for food, healthcare, housing, education, and other basic needs that will help decrease the flow of migration. Remittances capture over 60 percent of foreign inflows, make up a substantial share of Haiti’s GDP, and serve as a lifeline for most Haitians.[11]

Indefinitely halt deportations and Maritime Forced Returns to Haiti, release detained Haitians and support administrative closure of removal cases
Although the Haitian government has been unable to receive and reintegrate its citizens safely, the U.S. Coast Guard has interdicted and summarily returned 131 Haitians since October 2023, including 65 individuals on March 12.[12] In addition, monthly deportation flights continue. There have been 253 deportation and expulsion flights to Haiti since September 19, 2021. Most of these estimated 26,000 individuals removed to Haiti were blocked from seeking asylum and other protection by Title 42 policies. These removals severely undermine the administration's promise to build a fairer and more inclusive immigration and asylum system for all and contribute to the destabilization of Haiti. We ask the Biden administration to halt all removal flights and maritime removals to the already-overburdened country.

Furthermore, consistent with Sec. 241 of the Immigration and Nationality Act and the accompanying regulations at 8 CFR Sec. 241,[13] Haitians with final removal orders should be released from immigration detention if they pose no threat to public safety because there is no significant likelihood of their removal in the reasonably foreseeable future. All pending cases should be evaluated, where Haiti is the country of removal, for prosecutorial discretion. Attorney General Garland restored the authority of immigration judges and the Board of Immigration Appeals to administratively close deportation proceedings nationwide.[14] Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE) attorneys should be instructed to join motions to administratively close the cases of Haitians in removal proceedings because they cannot be safely removed under current conditions.

Expand and Expedite Parole to Haitians
We request that the administration remove the arbitrary monthly cap on CHNV parole recipients. Given this national emergency in Haiti, allowing American sponsors who are currently waiting to sponsor individuals from Haiti is a far safer option than forcing Haitians to flee through irregular migration channels. In addition to expanding parole availability, we request expedited processing for the Haitian Family Reunification Program. Expanding these existing legal pathways will reduce the likelihood that Haitians will be exploited by smuggling networks.

In conclusion, we thank you for your attention to this urgent and critical matter. As we say in Haitian Kreyol, Anpil men, chay pa lou! (Many hands make the load light). We look forward to collaborating with you on this issue over the coming weeks and months.


Haitian Bridge Alliance

The Honorable Kamala D. Harris, Vice President of the United States
Attorney General Garland, Department of Justice
Advisor Jake Sullivan, National Security Council

Signatory Organizations

1. #WelcomeWithDignity
2. 18 Million Rising
3. AAPI New Jersey
5. Acacia Center for Justice
6. Access Living / Cambiando Vidas
7. Adhikaar
8. AFC
9. Afghans For A Better Tomorrow
11. African Advocacy Network
12. African Communities Together (ACT)
13. African Services Committee
15. Al Otro Lado
16. Alabama Coalition for Immigrant Justice (ACIJ)
17. Alabama Latino AIDS Coalition
18. Aldea - The People's Justice Center
19. Alianza Americas
20. Alternative Chance
21. Amazing Grace Ministries of PBC
22. American Civil Liberties Union (ACLU)
23. American Friends Service Committee (AFSC)
24. American Humanist Association
25. American Immigration Lawyers Association
26. American Jewish World Service
27. Americans for Immigrant Justice
28. America's Voice
29. Amnesty International USA
30. Angry Tias and Abuelas
31. Arkansas United
32. ArlingtOn PAR (Partners Against Racism)
33. Armadillos Ni un Migrante Menos
34. Ascentria Care Alliance
35. Asian Americans Advancing Justice | AAJC
37. Asociación de Guatemaltecos Sin Fronteras
39. Association of Exchange and Development of Activities and Partnership, AEDAP
40. Association of Haitian Women in Boston
41. Asylum Seeker Advocacy Project (ASAP)
42. AVAN Immigrant Services
43. Ayuda
44. Barali Foundation
45. Beauty is You
46. Berkshire Immigrant Center
47. Beyond Borders
48. Black Alliance for Justice Immigration
49. Black Humboldt
50. Black LGBTQIA+ Migrant Project (BLMP)
51. Border Butterflies
52. Borderlands Resource Initiative
53. Boston Immigration Justice Accompaniment Network
55. Boston University School of Law Immigrants' Rights and Human Trafficking Program
56. Brazilian Worker Center Inc
57. Brooklyn Immigrant Community Support (BICS)
58. Building Utopia Consulting
59. California Collaborative for Immigrant Justice (CCIJ)
60. California Immigrant Policy Center
61. Capital Area Immigrants' Rights (CAIR) Coalition
62. CAR/Chapter Haiti (Nou Egal)
63. Carolina Migrant Network
64. CASA
65. Casa Mary Johanna
66. Casa Yurumein
67. Catholic Charities Archdiocese of Boston
68. Catholic Charities Community Services, Archdiocese of New York
69. Catholic Legal Immigration Network, Inc.
70. Catholic Legal Services, Archdiocese of Miami
71. Catholic Migration Services
72. Catholic Social Services-Immigration Legal Services
74. Center for Constitutional Rights
75. Center for Democracy in the Americas
76. Center for Freethought Equality
77. Center for Gender & Refugee Studies
78. Center for Immigrant Progress
79. Center for Immigration Law and Policy, UCLA School of Law
80. Center for Law and Social Policy (CLASP)
81. Center for New Americans
82. Center for Popular Democracy
83. Center for Safety & Change
84. Central American Black Organization
85. Central American Refugee Center
86. Central American Resource Center of Northern California -CARECEN SF
87. Central West Justice Center
89. Centro Comunitario CEUS
90. Centro Presente
91. Centro Romero
92. Centro San Bonifacio
93. CFHI
94. Charnette Frederic Civic Association
95. Chesapeake Climate Action Network
96. Children's Law Center of Massachusetts
97. Church World Service
99. Ciudadania Oregon
100. Clemency Coalition of New York
101. Climate Refugees
102. Coalición de Derechos Humanos
103. Coalition for Humane Immigrant Rights (CHIRLA)
104. Co-Counsel NYC
105. Colectivo de Desarrollo Transnacional de Michoacán
106. Colectivo de Mujeres Transnacionales
107. Colorado Immigrant Rights Coalition
108. Communities United for Status & Protection (CUSP)
109. Community Changemakers
110. Community for Children, Inc.
111. Congregation of Our Lady of Charity of the Good Shepherd, U.S. Provinces
112. COPAL Minnesota
113. Corazón Arizona
114. Cornell Asylum Appeals Clinic
115. Cornell Immigration Law & Advocacy Clinic
116. Council on American-Islamic Relations, California
117. Creative Exchanges Initiative
119. Crescendo
120. CRLN
121. Dalmacy Law, PLLC
122. Decarcerate Memphis
123. Detention Watch Network
124. Diaspora Community Service
125. Diaspora Hondurena Internacional
126. Dice Home Improvements
127. Dignidad/The Right to Immigration Institute
128. DIRE
129. Disciples Home Mission
130. Dominican Development Center
131. Dorothy Day Catholic Worker, Washington DC
132. DOVE, Inc.
133. DRUM - Desis Rising Up & Moving
134. DuPont Youth
135. Durango Unido
136. East Boston Community Council
137. ECDC
138. Emmaus community
139. English for New Bostonians
140. Enlace Chicago
141. EqualHealth´s Campaign Against Racism
142. Estrella del Paso (Formerly DMRS)
143. Evangelical Lutheran Church in America
144. Fair Immigration Reform Movement (FIRM)
145. Faith in Action
146. Faith in Action International
147. Faith in Action Nevada
148. Faith in New Jersey
149. Faith in New York
151. Familias Unidas en Acción
152. Families For Freedom
153. Family Action Network Movement
154. FEA Foundation Ministries
155. FIAEB- HopeForHaiti:Education- HHE
156. FIAEB-St. Columba
157. First Friends of New Jersey & New York
158. Flanbwayan Haitian Literacy Project
159. Flint Rising
160. Florence Immigrant & Refugee Rights Project
161. Florida Immigrant Coalition
162. Florida Rising
163. Florida Student Power
164. Fondasyon Mapou
165. Fondation Pain d'Espoir
166. Food Justice DMV
167. Fordham Law School Feerick Center for Social Justice
168. Franciscan Action Network
169. Free Migration Project
170. Freedom for Immigrants
171. Friends Committee on National Legislation
172. Friends of Farmworkers, Inc. dba Justice at Work
173. Friends of Matènwa Inc.
174. Fundación Código Humano
175. Fundación Cónclave Investigativo de las Ciencias Jurídicas Y Sociales
176. Gender Action
177. Georgia Haitian Leadership Coalition
178. Global Justice Clinic at Western New England University School of Law
179. Global Justice Clinic, NYU School of Law
180. Global Refuge
181. GOALS Haiti
182. Grantmakers Concerned with Immigrants and Refugees (GCIR)
183. Groupe d’Appui au Développement et à la Démocratie (GRADE)
184. Grupo de Apoyo e Integracion Hispanoamericano
185. Haïti Global Connection
186. Haiti H2O: Hope to Opportunity
187. Haiti Moving Forward
188. Haiti Partners
189. Haiti Policy House
190. Haiti Renewal Alliance
191. Haiti Solidarity Network of the North East
192. Haitian - Americans United, Inc. (H.A.U.)
193. Haitian American Lawyer Association of DC, Maryland, and Virginia
194. Haitian Americans United For Progress, Inc.
197. Haitian Evangelical Clergy of Georgia
198. Haitian Neighborhood Center,Sant La Inc.
199. Haitian Women for Haitian Refugees
200. Haitian-American United For Change
201. Haiti-Jamaica Society
202. Harvard Immigration and Refugee Clinical Program
203. Hawaiʻi Institute for Human Rights
204. H-CAN Immigration & Refugees Action Group
205. H-CANN
206. HeArt House
207. Heartland Workers Center
208. Her Many Voices
209. HIAS Pennsylvania
210. Hondurans Against AIDS
211. Hope Border Institute
212. Hope CommUnity Center
213. HOPE Ministries of Georgia inc
214. Houston America For All
215. HPUMC
216. Human Rights First
217. Human Rights Watch
219. Illinois Coalition for Immigrant and Refugee Rights
220. Illinois Workers Action
221. Immigrant ARC
222. Immigrant Children Advocates' Relief Effort (ICARE)
223. Immigrant Defenders Law Center
224. Immigrant Justice Clinic University of Wisconsin Law School
225. Immigrant Justice Network
226. Immigrant Legal Advocacy Project
227. Immigrant Legal Defense
228. Immigrant Legal Resource Center
229. Immigrants Act Now
230. Immigrants Rising
231. Immigration Advocacy & Research Group, Inc.
232. Immigration Clinic, University of Miami School of Law
233. Immigration Equality
234. Immigration Hub
235. Immigration Law & Justice of the Delaware Valley
236. Innovation Law Lab
237. Institute for Gender and Development Studies
238. Institute for Justice and Democracy in Haiti
239. Inter-Faith Committee on Latin America (IFCLA)
240. Interfaith Welcome Coalition of San Antonio, Texas
241. International Association of Bridge, Structural, Ornamental, and Reinforcing Iron Workers
242. International Institute of New England
243. International Refugee Assistance Project (IRAP)
244. International Union of Painters and Allied Trades
245. InterReligious Task Force on Central America
246. IWC San Antonio
247. J. Hospedales Law Firm PLLC
248. Jamaica Haiti Network
249. Jamaicans for Haitian Refugees
250. Jane Doe Inc. (JDI) The Massachusetts Coalition Against Sexual Assault and Domestic Violence
251. Jerusalem Adventist Church of Silver Spring
252. Jesuit Refugee Service/USA
253. Jewish Family Service of San Diego
254. Just Neighbors
255. Justice Action Center
256. Justice and Advocacy Ministries at Disciples Home Missions
257. Justice Center of Southeast Massachusetts
258. Justice in Motion
259. Kids in Need of Defense
260. Komite Ayiti,Inc
261. Konbit for Haiti
262. La Colaborativa
263. La Mesa Boricua de Florida
264. La Resistencia
265. Las Americas Immigrant Advocacy Center
266. Latin America Working Group
267. Latinas en Poder
268. Latino Commission on AIDS
269. Latino Policy Forum
270. LatinoJustice PRLDEF
271. Latinos Progresando
272. Laundry Workers Center
273. Laundry, Distribution & Food Service Joint Board, Workers United/SEIU
274. Lawyers for Good Government
275. Li Li Li Read
276. Lila LGBTQ, Inc.
277. Living Hope Wheelchair Association
278. Louisiana Advocates for Immigrants in Detention
279. Lowenstein International Human Rights Clinic
280. Lutheran Advocacy Ministry in Pennsylvania
281. Lutheran Social Services of New York
282. Lutheran Social Services of the National Capital Area (LSSNCA)
283. Make the Road Nevada
284. Make the Road New York
285. Margarida Alves Collective, Brazil
286. Marianist Social Justice Immigration Team
287. Maryknoll Office for Global Concerns
288. Mass General Brigham
289. Massachusetts Immigrant and Refugee Advocacy Coalition
290. Massachusetts Law Reform Institute
291. Maverick Landing Community Services (MLCS)
292. Medical Mission Sisters, Justice Office
293. Memphis United Methodist conference immigrant Relief Fund
294. Memphis Voices for Palestine
295. Mennonite Central Committee U.S.
296. MetroWest Legal Services
297. Miami Workers Center
298. Migrant, Immigrant & Refugee Rights Alliance (MIRR Alliance)
299. Mijente
300. Mission Guatemala USA
301. Mobile Pathways
302. MomsRising/MamásConPoder
303. Montgomery County Government
304. Mount Sinai Hospital
305. MPower Change
306. Mundo Maya Foundation
307. Muslim Advocates
308. Muslim Power Building Project
309. Nasam LLC
310. National Advocacy Center of the Sisters of the Good Shepherd
311. National Council of Churches
312. National Council of Jewish Women
313. National Domestic Workers Alliance
314. National Employment Law Project
315. National Immigrant Justice Center
316. National Immigration Law Center (NILC)
317. National Immigration Project (NIPNLG)
318. National Korean American Service & Education Consortium (NAKASEC)
319. National Lawyers Guild-SF Bay Area chapter
320. National Lawyers Guild-Task Force on the Americas
321. National LGBTQ Task Force Action Fund
322. National Network for Immigrant and Refugee Rights (NNIRR)
323. National Partnership for New Americans
324. National Resource Center for Refugees, Immigrants and Migrants (University of Minnesota)
326. Neighbors Link
327. NETWORK Lobby for Catholic Social Justice
328. New Jersey Alliance for Immigrant Justice
29. New Jersey Forum for Human Rights
30. New Jersey Peace Action
331. New Mexico Immigrant Law Center
332. New Sanctuary Movement of Philadelphia
333. New York Immigration Coalition
334. New York Legal Assistance Group (NYLAG)
335. Nicaragua Center for Community Action
337. NM Comunidades en Accion y de Fe
338. Northeast Justice Center
339. Northern New Jersey Sanctuary Coalition
340. Northwest Immigrant Rights Project
341. Nou Hope
342. Nunlai Research & Consulting
343. NYU Immigrant Rights Clinic of Washington Square Legal Services
344. Oasis Legal Services
345. Office of Peace, Justice, and Ecological Integrity/Sisters of Charity of Saint Elizabeth
346. Ohio Immigrant Alliance
347. Orange County Equality Coalition
348. Organization for Refugee and Immigrant Success
349. Our Voice Nuestra Voz
350. PACT
351. Pangea Legal Services
352. Partners for Our Communities
353. Partners In Health
354. Partners In Progress
355. Partners with Haiti, Member
356. Pathway for Immigrant Workers
357. Pax Christi Florida
358. Pax Christi Illinois
359. Pax Christi New Jersey
360. Pax Christi Young Adult Caucus
361. Pennsylvania Immigrant and Citizenship Coalition
362. Presbyterian Church (USA)
364. Progressive Leadership Alliance of Nevada
365. Project ANAR
366. Project Lifeline
367. Project Literacy
368. Promise Family Pantry
369. Prophetic Resistance Boston
370. Public Counsel
371. Public Law Center
372. Quixote Center
373. Radio Soleil
374. RCMA
375. REACHUP inc
376. Reconciliation Ministry Without Walls
377. Red de Pueblos Transnacionales
378. Red Mexicana de Líderes y Organizaciones de Migrantes
379. Refugee Congress
380. Refugee Council USA
381. Refugee Health Alliance
382. Refugees International
383. Rêve Et Action
384. Revive Your Soul Ministries Inc
385. Rian Immigrant Center
386. Robert F. Kennedy Human Rights
387. Rockland Immigration Coalition
388. Rocky Mountain Immigrant Advocacy Network
389. Rosie's Place
390. Rural Women Health Project
391. Safe Harbor Clinic, Brooklyn Law School
392. Santa Clara University - International Human Rights Clinic
393. Savesouls INC
394. School Sisters of Notre Dame-Atlantic-Midwest Province
395. Seeds of Resistance
396. SEIRN
397. Sèm Se Mwen
398. Service Employees International Union (SEIU)
399. Services, Immigrant Rights and Education Network
400. Sinchi Foundation
401. Sisters of Mercy of the Americas Justice Team
402. Sisters of St. Joseph of Boston
403. SMOC
404. Social Workers for Immigration Justice
405. Solidarity Engineering
406. Southeast Asian Defense Project
407. Spanish Community Center
408. SPID Theatre (UK diaspora)
409. SPLC Action Fund
410. Student Clinic for Immigrant Justice
411. Suffolk Law Clinic Programs, Immigrant Justice Clinic
412. Summits Education
413. TakeRoot Justice
414. Task Force on the Americas
415. Telpochacalli Community Education Project
416. Tennessee Immigrant & Refugee Rights Coalition
417. Texas Civil Rights Project
418. The Advocates for Human Rights
419. The Door
420. The Episcopal Church in Southeast Florida's Justice commission
421. The G.A.P. Gels and Gyz Human Rights Consortium
422. The Georgia Haitian Leadership Coalition
423. The Haitian American Lawyers Association of New York
424. The Haitian Roundtable
425. The Legal Aid Society (NYC)
426. The Legal Project
427. The Mami Chelo Foundation, INC
428. The National Haitian American Elected Officials Network(NHAEON
429. The National Network for Arab Americans Communities (NNAAC)
430. The Reformed Church of Highland Park
431. The Rhizome Center for Migrants
432. The United Methodist Church — General Board of Church and Society
433. Ti Ayiti Preparedness And Relief Institution
436. Transformations CDC
438. Tsuru for Solidarity
439. Twin Audio Network
440. U.S. Committee for Refugees and Immigrants (USCRI)
441. UC Davis Immigration Law Clinic
442. UMass Memorial Health
443. UndocuBlack Network
445. UnidosUS
446. Unitarian Universalists for Social Justice
447. United African Organization
448. United Church of Christ
449. United Food and Commercial Workers International Union (UFCW)
450. United for a Fair Economy
451. United We Dream
452. University of Miami School of Law Human Rights Clinic
453. Unlocking Communities
455. Vecindarios 901
456. Venezuelan American Caucus
457. VietRISE
458. Voces de la Frontera
459. Voto Latino
460. Washington Defender Association
461. Washington Office on Latin America
462. Watertown Citizens Refugee Support Group
463. We Are All America (WAAA)
464. WeCount!
465. Wellness for Our Future
466. Wellstone Democratic Renewal Club
467. Win Without War
468. WIN!
469. Wind of the Spirit Immigrant Resource Center
470. Wisconsin Faith Voices for Justice
471. Witness Against Torture
472. Witness at the Border
473. Women of Faith & Empowerment Ministry
474. Women Working Together U.S.A
475. Women's All Points Bulletin WAPB
476. Women's Refugee Commission
477. Women's Resource and Outreach Centre
478. Woods Law Group, P.C.
479. Working Families United
480. Wynne Farm Ecological Reserve
481. Young Center for Immigrant Children's Rights

[1] Rising to the Challenge on Haiti: Multinational, Remarks by Anthony J. Blinken, Secretary of State (February 22, 2024),

[3] Abdi Latif Dahir and Declan Walsh, Kenya Signs Deal With Haiti to Send 1,000 Police to Caribbean, The New York Times (March 1, 2024), and Caitlin Stephen Hu and Michael Rios, Haiti’s leader to resign as gangs run rampant through country engulfed in crisis, CNN, March 12, 2024,

[4] AnneClaire Stapleton, Christian Edwards and Sahar Akbarzair, Only Henry can sign off on Haiti’s transitional council, CNN (March 14, 2024),

[5] Evens Sanon and Pierre-Richard Luxama, Haiti Declares State of Emergency and Curfew After Thousands of Prisoners Escape From Jail, Time (March 4, 2024),

[6] RNDDH’s position on the chaotic situation in Haiti, National Human Rights Defense Network (RNDDH) (March 6, 2024),

[7] Widlore Merancourt and Samantha Schmidt, Haitians shot dead in street and there’s no one to take the corpses away, Washington Post (March 9, 2024),

[9] Tom Phillips, Officials say marines deployed for night-time evacuation amid intense fighting in Port-au-Prince, while German and EU representatives also leave, The Guardian (March 11, 2024),

[10] E. Tendayi Achiume (Special Rapporteur on contemporary forms of racism, racial discrimination, xenophobia and racial intolerance), Report of the Special Rapporteur on contemporary forms of racism, racial discrimination, xenophobia and related intolerance, at ¶ 6, U.N. Doc. A/74/321, (August 21, 2019),

[11] Haiti’s Turnaround and its Impact on Remittances, The Dialogue, Leadership for the Americas (November 15, 2022),

[12] U.S. Coast Guard News, Press release, Coast Guard Repatriates 65 Migrants to Haiti (March 12, 2024),

[13] INA § 241(b)(3).

[14] 28 I&N Dec. 326 (A.G. 2021).

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