Independent newspaper editors, publishers, and journalists in Iran are suffering arbitrary
detention, assault and prosecution. These attacks have become more frequent during the
presidency of Mohammad Khatami, as conservatives within the government have sought to
suppress what has emerged as the major mobilizing tool of reformists. The closure of Neshat
(Happiness) newspaper in early September is the fourth time this year that the courts have
closed down a major independent newspaper that supports President Khatami's reform agenda