Russian orphanages where children with disabilities grow up often transfer them to closed state institutions for adults when they reach 18 without their consent. Those who do move into the community often do not receive the support they need to live independently.

In research from five cities in Russia in 2018, Human Rights Watch documented 28 cases in which directors of children’s orphanages forced or coerced children with a range of disabilities into adult institutions once they turned 18. When children turn 18, they are legally adults and have the right to live independently and be included in the community.