Ground-breaking investigations and prosecutions are underway in some European countries against people accused of torture, beatings, and kidnappings in Syria and Iraq. These cases are made possible by the arrival in Europe of both victims and suspects in the context of the refugee crisis. 

The cases are the first cracks in impunity and the first credible attempts at holding accountable those responsible for terrorizing civilians in the recent conflicts in Syria and Iraq. The cases demonstrate that grave crimes in Syria and Iraq are of concern to humanity as a whole and can be prosecuted even if those responsible flee abroad.