Burma’s civilian-led government, which took office in March 2016, has failed to meet expectations to carry out significant reforms. Authorities continue to use repressive laws to arrest and prosecute activists for criticizing the government or military. The military remains the country’s most powerful institution, with control of key ministries and autonomy from civilian oversight. In late 2016, the army carried out a brutal crackdown on ethnic Rohingya Muslims in Rakhine State, including extrajudicial killings, rape, torture, and widespread arson. Ongoing fighting between the military and ethnic armed groups has intensified in Shan and Kachin States, causing mass displacement.

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