Burma’s stalled democratic transition has given way to a massive human rights and humanitarian crisis. Since August 2017, the military has committed mass killings, sexual violence, and widespread arson against Rohingya Muslims in Rakhine State that amount to crimes against humanity, forcing several hundred thousand to flee to Bangladesh. Armed conflict between the military and ethnic armed groups in northern Burma has intensified, causing mass displacement. Under Aung San Suu Kyi’s de facto leadership, prosecutions of journalists, activists, and critics have increased. The military remains the country’s most powerful institution, with control of key ministries and autonomy from civilian oversight.