Burma’s civilian-led government, which took office in March 2016, has failed to meet expectations to implement significant reforms. Since October 2016, security forces have carried out a series of brutal crackdowns on ethnic Rohingya Muslims in Rakhine State, including extrajudicial killings, rape, torture, and widespread arson, leading to hundreds of thousands fleeing across the border to Bangladesh. Ongoing fighting between the military and ethnic armed groups has intensified in Shan and Kachin States, causing mass displacement. Authorities continue to use repressive laws to arrest and prosecute activists for criticizing the government or armed forces. The military remains the country’s most powerful institution, with control of key ministries and autonomy from civilian oversight.