Judicial investigations into grave human rights abuses committed during the 20-year armed conflict that ended in 2000 remain slow and limited. Threats to freedom of expression, violence against women, and abuses by security forces are also major concerns. In November 2020, the Peruvian National Police committed multiple abuses against mostly peaceful demonstrators, killing two protesters and injuring hundreds. In 2021, Keiko Fujimori unsuccessfully tried to use spurious litigation and political pressure to annul the presidential elections she lost against Pedro Castillo.

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