In December 2022, then-President Pedro Castillo attempted to dissolve Congress and take over the judicial power, amid serious allegations of corruption against him. Congress removed him from office and Vice-President Dina Boluarte became president. Thousands of protesters took to the streets calling for early elections and other demands. While the vast majority were peaceful, some protesters committed acts of violence. Security forces responded with disproportionate force. Scores of protesters and bystanders and one police officer have been killed. Threats to freedom of expression and violence against women and defenders of environmental and Indigenous rights are also major concerns.

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