China under the Chinese Communist Party is a one-party authoritarian state that systemically curbs fundamental rights. Under President Xi Jinping, the government has deepened repression at home and sought to muzzle critics abroad. It has arbitrarily detained hundreds of human rights defenders and lawyers, tightened control over civil society, media, and the internet, and deployed invasive surveillance technology. The government imposes particularly heavy-handed control in the ethnic minority regions of Xinjiang and Tibet. Since 2017, authorities in Xinjiang have arbitrarily detained an estimated one million Turkic Muslims. The government is encroaching on Hong Kong’s freedoms, including directly imposing national security legislation on the city. The government’s weeks-long coverup of the Covid-19 outbreak, including silencing health workers, contributed to the global spread of the coronavirus.