The conflict between the Islamic State (ISIS), and government forces, including Popular Mobilization Forces dominated the human rights situation in 2016. ISIS used civilians as human shields, fired indiscriminate weapons into civilian areas, carried out car bomb and other suicide attacks, and planted landmines, killing and injuring civilians. Government forces engaged in destruction of homes, looting, and abuses against civilians including torture, enforced disappearances and executions. ISIS, Popular Mobilization Forces, and local armed forces linked to the Kurdistan Workers’ Party (PKK) used child soldiers. Authorities carried out policies triggering displacement of communities, including demolition of homes and forcible displacement.