March 2, 2005
Silencing the United Nations on needle exchange is deadly diplomacy. The United States should be encouraging proven HIV prevention strategies, not attacking them.
Jonathan Cohen of Human Rights Watch’s HIV/AIDS Program

Unfortunately, recent events suggest that UNODC—under pressure from the United States—is being asked to withdraw support from proven HIV prevention strategies at precisely the moment when increased commitment to measures such as syringe exchange and opiate substitution treatment is needed. It is particularly alarming that the silencing of UNODC is occurring in a year when the agency is chair of UNAIDS’ Committee of Co-sponsoring Organizations and in a year when HIV prevention is a focus of thematic debate at the 48th meeting of the CND. Among the events that have particularly heightened our concern are:

  • Mr. Costa, who last year expressed support for positive changes in the Russian criminal code, expansion of syringe exchange in countries facing injection driven epidemics and other measures to reduce drug-related harm, has apparently been rebuked by the U.S. State Department. Following a meeting with Robert Charles, U.S. Assistant Secretary for International Narcotics and Law Enforcement Affairs, Mr. Costa pledged to review all UNODC electronic and printed documents for references to “harm reduction” and to be “even more vigilant in the future.”
  • In Southeast Asia, UNODC has suspended a program that sought reduce drug users’ vulnerability to HIV prevention through approaches that emphasized public health and drug users’ human rights, rather than punishment.
  • Even syringe exchange, affirmed as an effective and essential part of HIV prevention by UNAIDS, WHO, and UN member nations, has become politically unpalatable. A November e-mail from a senior UNODC staff member asked junior staff to “to ensure that references to harm reduction and needle/syringe exchange are avoided in UNODC documents, publications and statements.”

We recognize that UNODC is dependent on contributions from donor nations, and that the U.S. is the single largest donor to UN drug control. At the same time, the lives of hundreds of thousands depend on sound, scientific approaches to HIV prevention. Numerous studies, including U.S. government studies, have found that strategies such as syringe exchange and methadone maintenance demonstrably diminish HIV transmission and other health risks. The fact that U.S. delegates declare the evidence in support of syringe exchange “unconvincing,” as they did in last year’s CND session, should not be allowed to determine the course of the UN drug control and HIV prevention efforts, which are inextricably and essentially linked. Nor should UNODC—a co-sponsor of UNAIDS, and an agency with an essential role to play in the course of the HIV epidemic—be asked to refrain from public statements about needle exchange simply because they do not fall within the realm of what the U.S. deems acceptable.

Strategies that attempt solely to achieve abstinence from drug use do not constitute an acceptable alternative to programs, such as syringe exchange, that help active drug users protect themselves from HIV/AIDS. Experience has shown that “zero tolerance” drug control efforts can have the effect of driving injection drug users underground and away from drug treatment and other health services. This is particularly true where, as in many countries, counter-narcotics efforts lead to false arrest, beatings and extortion by police, prolonged detention without trial, forced drug treatment, disproportionate incarceration in cruel conditions and, in some cases, extrajudicial execution. Programs such as syringe exchange and opiate substitution, by contrast, both prevent HIV infection and can provide a bridge to other health services. Restricting these programs is a blatant infringement of drug users’ human right to health.

As you gather this year to debate HIV/AIDS prevention and drug abuse, we respectfully urge you to support syringe exchange, opiate substitution treatment and other harm reduction approaches demonstrated to reduce HIV risk; to affirm the human rights of drug users to health and health services; and to reject efforts to overrule science and tie the hands of those working on the front lines. No less than the future of the HIV epidemic is at stake.

cc: Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS
World Health Organization
Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights
International Narcotics Control Board

Organizations by region
Asia
AIZHIXING Institute of Health Education, Beijing, China

Asian Harm Reduction Network (AHRN), Chiang Mai, Thailand

Asia Pacific Rainbow, New Delhi, India

Australian Drug Foundation, Melbourne, Australia

Australian Injecting and Illicit Drug Users League, Darlinghurst, Australia

Blue Diamond Society, Kathmandu, Nepal

Burnet Institute, Melbourne, Australia and Yangon, Myanmar

The Centre for Harm Reduction, Macfarlane Burnet Institute for Medical Research & Public Health, Melbourne, Australia

Community Health, Rehabilitation, Education & Awareness (CREA), Dhaka, Bangladesh

Drug Action Committee of the City of Greater Geelong, Victoria, Australia

Family Drug Support, Willoughby, Australia

Health and Development Networks (HDN), Chiang Mai, Thailand

ILGLAW – Asia, New Delhi, India

Lawyers Collective HIV/AIDS Unit, New Delhi, India

Malaysian AIDS Council, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia

Malaysian Harm Reduction Working Group, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia

Northern Sydney Central Coast Health, Sydney, Australia

Pinoy Plus Association, Manila, Philippines

RISE, Peshawar, Pakistan

Sharan—Society for Service to Urban Poverty, New Delhi, India

Thai AIDS Treatment Action Group (TTAG), Bangkok, Thailand

Thai Drug Users' Network (TDN), Bangkok, Thailand

Turning Point Alcohol and Drug Centre, Melbourne, Australia

VIVAIDS Inc., Fitzroy, Australia

WartaAIDS, Jakarta, Indonesia

Western Australian Substance Users Association, Bunbury, Australia

Yayasan Spiritia, Jakarta, Indonesia

Africa
AfriCASO: African Council of Aids Service Organization, Dakar, Senegal

Kenya AIDS NGOs Consortium (KANCO), Nairobi, Kenya

Sheryl’s Orphans Children Home, Nairobi, Kenya

UNDP/Kinshasa, Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of Congo

Europe/Central Asia
Abraço—Associação de Apoio a Pessoas Infectadas e Afectadas pelo VIH /SIDA, Lisbon, Portugal

Act Up—Paris, Paris, France

Action Against AIDS Germany, Tubingen, Germany

Actions Traitements, Paris, France

AGIHAS (PLWHA Support group), Riga, Latvia

AIDES NGO, Pantin Cedex, France

AIDS Action Europe, Amsterdam, Netherlands

AIDS Foundation East-West (AFEW), Moscow, Russia

Aids-Hilfe Bonn e. V., Bonn, Germany

AIDS Prevention Centre, Riga, Latvia

AKZEPT E.V.—Bundesverband für akzeptierende Drogenarbeit und humane Drogenpolitik, Berlin, Germany

Amsterdam Institute for Addiction Research (AIAR), Amsterdam, Netherlands

A.N.O., Prague, Czech Republic

Associazione Mastropietro & Co., Turin, Italy

Associazione Nazionale Italiana Lotta AIDS (A.L.A.), Milano, Italy

Blupoint Drug Counselling Centre, Budapest, Hungary

Bremen Institute for Drug Research, Bremen, Germany

CA Odyseus, Bratislava, Slovakia

Center for Interdisciplinary Research on Women and Gender (ZFG), Oldenburg, Germany

Central and Eastern European Harm Reduction Network, Vilnius, Lithuania

The Centre for Research on Drugs and Health Behaviour, Imperial College, United Kingdom

Charitable Foundation "Rehabilitation Center of Drug Addicts "Virtus", Dnipropetrovsk, Ukraine

The Chrysalis Drug Project, Hertford, United Kingdom

Coalition on Vulnerable Population "I Can Live", Vilnius, Lithuania

Community Organization of People Living with HIV & AIDS, Moscow, Russia

Convictus Eesti, Tallinn, Estonia

Cranstoun Drug Services, London, United Kingdom

DIA+LOGS NGO, Support centre for those affected by HIV/AIDS, Riga, Latvia

Die Deutsche Gesellschaft für Suchtmedizin (vorm DGDS) e.V., Hamburg, Germany

DroBeL - Drogenberatung Lehrte e. V., Lehrte, Germany

Drogenberatung e.V., Bielefeld, Germany

Drogprevenciós Alapítvány, Budapest, Hungary

Drug Policy Project, Hungarian Civil Liberties Union, Budapest, Hungary

Dublin AIDS Alliance Ltd., Dublin, Ireland

Equal to Equal, Almaty, Kazakhstan

Estima Associação, Leiria, Portugal

Északi Támpont Egyesület, Budapest, Hungary

European AIDS Treatment Group, Brussels, Belgium

European Coalition for Just and Effective Drug Policies (ENCOD), Antwerp, Belgium

Evangelisches Stadtjugendpfarramt Gera, Gera, Germany

Förderverein interdisziplinärer Sucht- und Drogen-forschung (FISD) e.V., Zentrum für interdisziplinäre Sucht-und drogen-forschung – ZIS, Hamburg, Germany

Freundes- und Förderkreis Suchtkrankenhilfe e.V., Wuppertal, Germany

GAT - Grupo Português de Activistas sobre Tratamentos de VIH/SIDA, Lisbon, Portugal

George House Trust, Manchester, United Kingdom

Grazia Zuffa, Fuoriluogo/Il Manifesto, Rome, Italy

Greater Glasgow Drug Action Team, Glasgow, Scotland

Grup Igia, Barcelona, Spain

Grupo de Trabajo sobre Tratamientos del VIH (gTt), Barcelona, Spain

Health and Social Development Foundation, Sofia, Bulgaria

Health Education Association NGO, Yerevan, Armenia

Helsinki Foundation for Human Rights, Warsaw, Poland

Hemp Seed Association, Budapest, Hungary

HIV Prevention Programme at Kekava, Riga, Latvia

Hope-Sofia, Sofia, Bulgaria

Indro e.V., Münster, Germany

Initiative for Health Foundation, Sofia, Bulgaria

The Initiative of Drug Users' Mutual Support, Vilnius, Lithuania

The Institute for Criminal Policy Research (ICPR), School of Law, King's College, London, United Kingdom

Institut für Sozialpädagogik, Technische Universität Berlin, Berlin, Germany

The International Community of Women Living with HIV/AIDS (ICW), London, United Kingdom

International Harm Reduction Association, London, United Kingdom

International HIV/AIDS Alliance, Kiev, Ukraine

Irish Penal Reform Trust, Dublin, Ireland

Itaca Europe, Rome, Italy

Italian League for the fight against AIDS - Center for Human Rights and Public Health (LILA CEDIUS ONLUS), Milan, Italy

JES e.V., Bielefeld and Bremen, Germany

John Mordaunt Trust, London, United Kingdom

Mainline Foundation, Amsterdam, Netherlands

Malopolskie Stowarzyszenie PROBACJA (PROBACJA Association), Krakow, Poland

MARATON, Warsaw, Poland

Methadone Alliance, London, United Kingdom

MODUS VIVENDI, Prévention du sida et réduction des risques pour usagers de drogues, Brussels, Belgium

Monar Krakow Drugs Project, Krakow, Poland

MONAR, Pulawy, Poland

National AIDS Trust, London, United Kingdom

Netherlands Drug Policy Foundation (SDB), Haarlem, Netherlands

NGO TRUST, Skopje, Macedonia

Osservatorio Italiano sull'Azione Globale contro l'AIDS, Rome, Italy

PASSAGE, Skopje, Macedonia

Plymouth Drug and Alcohol Action Team, Plymouth, United Kingdom

Quest for Quality, Amsterdam, Netherlands

REFORM, Drug Policy Interest Group, Essex, United Kingdom

RFSU, The Swedish Association for Sexuality Education, Stockholm, Sweden

Romanian Association against AIDS (ARAS), Bucharest, Romania

Romanian Harm Reduction Network (RHRN), Bucharest, Romania

Russian Harm Reduction Network, Moscow, Russia

SANANIM, Prague, Czech Republic

Sensoa (Flemish Centre for Expertise and Services on Sexual Health and HIV), Antwerp, Belgium

SIDACTION – International Programs, Paris, France

SIDA STUDI, Barcelona, Spain

SignPost Forth Valley, Stirling, Scotland

Social AIDS Committee, Warsaw, Poland

SOMA – Associação Portuguesa Anti-proibicionista, Lisbon, Portugal

Steunpunt Druggebruikers, Antwerp, Belgium

T3E [UK] Ltd., London, United Kingdom

Transform Drug Policy Foundation, Bristol, United Kingdom

Transnational Institute (TNI) Drug and Democracy Programme, Amsterdam, Netherlands

Tver AIDS Center, Tver, Russia

Tver Center of Drugs Addiction Treatment, Tver, Russia

United Kingdom Harm Reduction Alliance Eccles, Kent, United Kingdom

Women for Women's Human Rights (WWHR) - New Ways, Istanbul, Turkey

World AIDS Campaign, Amsterdam, The Netherlands

Zentrum für interdisziplinäre Frauen- und Geschlechterforschung – ZFG, Carl von Ossietzky Universität Oldenburg, Oldenburg, Germany

Zentrum Suchtmedizin Klinikum Wahrendorff, Sehnde, Germany

Latin America
ACERD—Associação Cearense de Redução de Danos, Fortaleza, Brazil

Argentinean Harm Reduction Association (ARDA), Buenos Aires, Argentina

Argentinean Harm Reduction Network (REDARD), Buenos Aires, Argentina

Asociación Civil “Convivencia” de Personas Viviendo y Conviviendo con VIH/SIDA, Buenos Aires, Argentina

Brazilian Drug Users Network, Recife, Brazil

CASA—Centro de Assessoria à Adolescência, Fortaleza and Florianópolis, Brazil

Center for Studies on Public Security and Citizenship (Centro de Estudos de
Seurança e Cidadania), Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

Centro de Convivência “É de Lei”, São Paulo, Brazil

Centro de Referência em Redução de Danos, Escola de Saúde Pública, Secretaria de Saúde do Estado do Rio Grande do Sul, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

Dínamo - Informação Responsável sobre Drogas e Afins, São Paulo, Brazil

Fundación para Estudio e Investigación de la Mujer. Buenos Aires, Argentina

HUMANAR, Huritaba, Brazil

ICC—Instituto Carioca de Criminologia (Institute of Criminology of Rio de Janeiro), Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

Intercambios Asociación Civil, Buenos Aires, Argentina

International Women Aids Caucus, Buenos Aires, Argentina

LACCASO - Latin American and Caribbean Council of AIDS Service Organizations, Caracas, Venezuela

MMFD—Movimento da Magistratura Fluminense pela Democracia (Movement of State of Rio de Janeiro's Judges for Democracy), Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

Mujer y Salud en Uruguay (MYSU), Montevideo, Uruguay

NetPsi—Núcleo de Estudos e Temas em Psicologia , São Paulo, Brazil

ONG INTERPARES, Parana Entre Rios, Argentina

Parana Drug Users Network, Curitiba, Brazil

Programa Alter-Acciones, El Abrojo – Instituto de Educación Popular, Montevideo, Uruguay

REDUC, Brazilian Harm Reduction Network, São Paulo, Brazil

RELARD, Latin American Harm Reduction Network, Curitiba, Brazil

Middle East/North Africa
Iranian National Center for Addiction Studies (INCAS), Tehran, Iran

The Moroccan Association for the Fight Against AIDS, Marrakesh, Morocco

Persepolis Harm Reduction NGO, Tehran, Iran

Persia+, UNDP GIPA Programme, Tehran, Iran

North America
Access Works! Harm Reduction Services, Minneapolis, MN, USA

Act Up—East Bay, Oakland, CA, USA

Advocates for Recovery Through Medicine, Connecticut Chapter, New London, CT, USA

After Hours Project, Inc., Brooklyn, NY, USA

AIDS Foundation of Chicago, Chicago, IL, USA

AIDS Project Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA, USA

AIDS Treatment Data Network, New York, NY, USA

American Academy of HIV Medicine, Washington DC, USA

American Foundation for AIDS Research, Washington DC, USA

ARC International, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada

Canadian Harm Reduction Network, Toronto, Ontario, Canada

Canadian HIV/AIDS Legal Network, Montreal, Quebec, Canada

Center for Health and Gender Equity (CHANGE), Takoma Park, MD, USA

Center for Human Rights and Public Health, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD, USA

CHAMP (Community HIV/AIDS Mobilization Project), New York, NY, USA

Chicago Recovery Alliance, Chicago, IL, USA

CitiWide Harm Reduction, Bronx, NY, USA

Drug Overdose Prevention & Education Project, San Francisco, CA, USA

DrugSense, Irvine, CA, USA

Exponents, New York, NY, USA

Foundation for Integrative AIDS Research (FIAR), Brooklyn, NY, USA

Gay Men's Health Crisis, New York, NY, USA

Global AIDS Alliance, Washington DC, USA

Harm Reduction Coalition, New York, NY, USA

Harm Reduction Project, Denver and Salt Lake City, UT, USA

Health GAP (Global Access Project), New York, NY, USA

HIV Advocacy Council of Oregon and SW Washington, Portland, OR, USA

HIV Resource Center, Roseburg Risk Reduction, Roseburg, OR, USA

Housing Works, Inc., New York, NY, USA

Human Rights Watch, New York, NY, USA

International Antiprohibitionist League, New York, NY, USA and Rome, Italy

International Center for Advancement of Addiction Treatment, Baron Edmond de Rothschild Chemical Dependency Institute of Beth Israel Medical Center, New York, NY, USA

International Council of AIDS Service Organizations (ICASO), Toronto, Ontario, Canada

International Foundation for Alternative Research in AIDS (IFARA), Portland, OR, USA

International Gay and Lesbian Human Rights Commission, New York, NY, USA

International Women's Health Coalition, New York, NY, USA

Lower East Side Harm Reduction Center, New York, NY, USA

Montefiore Medical Center, Division of Public Health and Policy Research, Bronx, NY, USA

NAMA-Norcal, Santa Cruz, CA, USA

National Association of People with AIDS (NAPWA), Silver Spring, MD, USA

National Association for Victims of Transfusion-Acquired AIDS, Bethesda, MD, USA

The New York Academy of Medicine, New York, NY, USA

Open Society Institute, New York, NY, USA

Physicians for Human Rights, Washington, DC, USA

Positive Health Project, Inc., New York, NY, USA

Prevention Point Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA, USA

TAG, Treatment Action Group, New York, NY, USA

Unified Networkers of Drug Users Nationally, Kingston, Ontario, Canada

Individual Signatories
Vittorio Agnoletto, Scientific Mgr of LILA CEDIUS, Member of the European
Parliament, GUE/NGL Group, Italy

Waheed Ahmad, Advocate High Court, Legal Secretary: World Asian Workers Organisation, Lahore, Pakistan

Joan Anderson, HIV/AIDS community Consultant and volunteer in Toronto, Ontario, Canada

Júlio Assis Simões, Departamento de Antropologia, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil

Guillermo R. Aureano, Ph.D., Chercheur associé, Groupe d'étude et de recherche sur la sécurité internationale (GERSI), Département de science politique, Université de Montréal, Montréal, Quebec, Canada

Brambillaschi Barbara, L.I.L.A. - Lega Italiana per la Lotta contro l'AIDS-sede di Como, Italy

Diogo Beltran, Oracle Corporation, Latin America Knowledge Developer, São
Paulo, Brazil

Trude Bennett, The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, School of Public Health, Chapel Hill, NC, USA

Dennis Berg, Ph.D., Professor of Sociology, California State University, Fullerton, CA, USA

Marie-Andrée Bertrand, Professor emeritus, University of Montreal, Criminology, Montréal, Quebec, Canada

Suzanne Bessoir, Harm Reduction Specialist, AIDS Service Center NYC, New York, NY, USA

Calum Blair, Harm Reduction worker, SignPost Forth Valley, Stirling, Scotland

Simon Boerboom, Psychiatrist, Amsterdam, Netherlands

Beth M. Bouloukos, Ithaca, New York, NY, USA

Ryan Borgen, Student Global AIDS Campaign, Northeastern University School of Law, Boston, MD, USA

Jill Britton, London, United Kingdom

Damon Brogan, Manager, VIVAIDS, Melbourne, Australia

Scott Burris, James E. Beasley Professor of Law, Temple University Beasley School of Law, Philadelphia, PA, USA

Milena Buschinelli Ferreira, São Paulo, Brazil

Benjamin Bynum, Fikelela AIDS Project, Cape Town, South Africa

Vincenzo Caracciolo, Associazione P24 Lila Livorno, Livorno, Italy

Craig Carmichael, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, Australia

Paul Causey, HIV/AIDS Program Consultant, Bangkok, Thailand

Jennifer Chapman, MPH, Project Manager/Research Coordinator, Center for Clinical, Epidemiology & Biostatistics, University of Pennsylvania, School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA, USA

George K. Clarke, Volunteer CT Director, CMA, New London, CT, USA

Shelley Cogger, Research Assistant, Post Release Experience of Prisoners in Queensland (PREP-Q), Queensland Alcohol and Drug, Research and Education Centre (QADREC), University of Queensland, Australia

Osvaldo Coggiola, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil

Franco Corleone, Forum Droghe, Rome, Italy

Melissa Dent, Community Development Worker, Melbourne, Australia

Tamara Desiatov, Koondoola, Western Australia

Kate Dickie, Annah Pickering, Managers, Auckland Branch of the New Zealand Prostitutes Collective, Auckland, New Zealand

Dr. Gyaw Htet Doe, Senior Consultant Psychiatrist, Taunggyi Drug Treatment Hospital, Taunggyi, Myanmar

Ms J Dowling, Auburn, NSW, Australia

Ernest Drucker PhD, Montefiore Medical Center, Bronx, NY, USA

Andy Dudley, Addaction, Derby, United Kingdom

Carolina Pecheny Durozier, Paris, France

Brian R. Edlin, M.D., Associate Professor of Medicine and Public Health, Center for the Study of Hepatitis C, Weill Medical College of Cornell University, New York, NY, USA

Maria Cristina de Figueiredo Guimarães, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

Maria Fotopoulou, Ph.D. student, Imperial College, University of London, London, United Kingdom

Mayada Youssef Fox, staff member, HIV/AIDS Department, WHO HQ, Geneva, Switzerland

Sandra Fox, former staff, Harm Reduction sector, Melbourne, Australia

Jonathan Freedlander, Baltimore, MD, USA

Liliana Gherman, MD, Program Director, Public Health Program, Soros Foundation, Chisinau, Moldova

Fernanda Gonçalves Moreira, M.D., Master in Psychiatry, PROAD – Departamento de Psiquiatria – EPM / UNIFESP, São Paulo, Brazil

Cees Goos, honorary consultant Anton Proksch Institut, former WHO staff, Vienna, Austria

Chris W. Green, Jakarta, Indonesia

Heath Greville (individual support), Department of Health, Perth, Western Australia

Patrick Griffiths, PhD candidate, Contemporary Globalisation and HIV/AIDS in Vietnam, RMIT University, Melbourne, Australia

Revd Dr Ian T Guy, General Practitioner, Fulcrum Medical Practice, Middlesbrough, United Kingdom

Bianca L. Guzman, Ph.D., CHOICES Director of Research, La Puente, CA, USA

Fiona Hale, International Network Manager, ICW, London, United Kingdom

Jen Hall, Information and Referral (Duty) Worker, Inner South Community Health Service, Prahran, Australia

Helena Hansen, MD-Ph.D. Candidate, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT, USA

Paul Hardacre, Training Officer, Asian Harm Reduction Network (AHRN), Chiang Mai, Thailand

Frank Harding, Ayer's Cliff, Quebec, Canada

Andy Hart, Vendafit Pty Ltd, Sydney, Australia

Paul J. von Hartmann, Project P.E.A.C.E., Planet Ecology Advancing Conscious Economics, Santa Rosa, CA, USA

Robert Heimer, Ph. D., Associate Professor, Department of Epidemiology and Public Health Center for Interdisciplinary Research on AIDS Yale University School of, New Haven, CT, USA

Beatriz Acevedo Holguin, Researcher on International Drug Policy, Hull, United Kingdom

Lital Hollander, Research Manager, ESMAN Medical Consulting, Milano, Italy

Danny Holness, Peer Education Officer, RaveSafe, Victoria, Australia

Daniel E. Hood, Ph.D., Department of Criminal Justice/Security Systems, State University of New York at Farmingdale, Farmingdale, New York, NY, USA

Annabelle Horton, UN Office of Drugs and Crime, Bangkok, Thailand.

Neil Hunt, Senior Research Associate, University of Kent; Honorary Research
Fellow, Centre for Research on Drugs and Health Behaviour, Imperial College,
London; Director, UK Harm Reduction Alliance Eccles, Kent, United Kingdom

Elena Jeffreys, Scarlet Alliance, Australias Sex Worker Association, Canberra Act, Australia

McKinzie McClay Jernberg, Minneapolis, MN, USA

Debbie Johnson, Macclesfield, Cheshire, United Kingdom

Maria Lucia Karam, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

P. R. W. Kendall, MBBS, MSc, FRCPC, Provincial Health Officer, Ministry of Health Services, Victoria, British Columbia, Canada

Joseph Kim, Young Drug Users Peer Education Officer, VIVAIDS (Victorian Drug User
Organisation), Melbourne, Australia

Dr Stuart A. Kinner, Lecturer, Queensland Alcohol and Drug, Research and Education Centre (QADREC), Queensland, Australia

Debbie Kocziban, Addaction, Plymouth Devon, United Kingdom

Nicky Kupfer, Alcohol Tobacco and other drugs service, Sydney, Australia

Heather La Faye LPN, Medicine cures sickness,all the world is medicine, what is the self?, Recovery Resource Center, Minneapolis, MN, USA

Susana Lambrechts, Esteban Echeverría, Argentina

Deb Lapthorne, Director of Public Health, Plymouth Primary Care Trust/ Plymouth City Council, Plymouth, United Kingdom

Fiona Leibrick, Lecturer: Health Sciences (Alcohol & Other Drug Studies) / Registered Psychologist, Charles Darwin University, Darwin, Australia

Prof. Dr. José Salvador Lepera, Disciplinas de Toxicologia, Faculdade de Ciências Farmacêuticas de Araraquara—UNESP, Araraquara, Brazil

Sarah Lippek, AIDS Center of Queens County, Long Island City, NY, USA

Deirdre Love, Senior Health Promotion Specialist HIV Positive People, Health First, London, United Kingdom

Wendy Loxley, Associate Professor, National Drug Research Institute, Curtin University of Technology, Bentley, West Australia

Devon MacFarlane, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada

Catherine Mackenzie, St. Catharines, Ontario, Canada

Jan Chrostek Maj MD, Rydygier's Hospital, Krakow, Poland

Paolo La Marca, Project manager (Harm reduction & training), LILA CEDIUS (Italian league fight against AIDS), Milano, Italy

David Martin, Program Medical Officer, Health Canada, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada

Phyra M. McCandless, Johns Hopkins School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD, USA

Rachel McLean, MPH Candidate, Johns Hopkins University Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD, USA

Belinda McNair, Senior Project Officer-City Drug Safety Plan, City of Melbourne, Melbourne, Australia

Cristina Menoyo, Secretaría del Plan Nacional sobre el Sida, Ministerio de Sanidad y Consumo, Madrid. España

Maria Luisa Milesi, Esteban Echeverría, Argentina

Dr Peter Miller, Senior Clinical Research Worker. National Addiction Centre (Maudsley Hospital/Institute of Psychiatry). King's College London, London, United Kingdom

PhDr. Michal Miovsky, Ph.D., Institute of psychology, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Prague, Czech Republic

Christina Moreira da Costa, Sociedade Viva Cazuza, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil

Andrew Moss Ph.D, Professor of Epidemiology and Medicine, University of California, San Francisco, CA, USA

Marjorie "Mo" Mowlam, Kent, United Kingdom

Sam Muller, Regional Field Coordinator, Asia Regional HIV/AIDS Project, "An Australian Government Initiative", Ha Noi, Viet Nam

Roshan das Nair, Queen's Medical Centre, Nottingham, England

Dr. Russell Newcombe, Senior Lecturer in Drug Use & Addiction, School of Psychology, Faculty of Science, Liverpool John Moore's University, Liverpool, England

Dr Michael O'Dwyer, Senior Health Adviser, DFID South East Asia, Bangkok, Thailand.

Patrick O'Gorman, Consultant with Asian Harm Reduction Network and European Expert with UNDP led BUMAD and SCAD programmes, Nottingham, United Kingdom

James M. Oleske, MD, MPH, François-Xavier Bagnoud Professor of Pediatrics, Director, Division of Pulmonary, Allergy, Immunology & Infectious Diseases, Department of Pediatrics, New Jersey Medical School, Newark, NJ, Untied States

Hilgunn Olsen, SIRUS Norwegian Institute for Alcohol and Drug Research, Oslo, Norway

Kim Pate, Canadian Association of Elizabeth Fry Societies (CAEFS), Ottawa, Ontario, Canada

Mario Pecheny, Instituto Gino Germani, Universidad de Buenos Aires – CONICET, Buenos Aires, Argentina

Jia Ping, Beijing Aizhixing institute of health education, China

Dr.Hayley Pinto, Norfolk and Waveny Mental Health, Partnership NHS Trust, Norwich, Norfolk, United Kingdom

Robert Power PhD, Reader in Health & Social Sciences Research, Centre for Sexual Health & HIV Research, Department of Primary Care & Population Sciences, Royal Free & University College Medical School, Mortimer Market, London, United Kingdom

Dianne Proctor, Reproductive Health Activist, (Previously CEO of AHRA, now retired), Canberra, Australia

Kenn Quayle, i2i Peer Support, Gibsons, British Columbia, Canada

Pedro Ratis e Silva, DINAMO, São Paulo, Brazil

Melissa Raven, Lecturer, Coordinator, Drugs and Public Health, Department of Public Health, Flinders University, Bedford Park, Australia

Emran M. Razzaghi, M.D., M.P.H., Ass Professor of Psychiatry, Tehran University of Medical Sciences 2004-5 World Fellow, Yale University, New Haven, CT, USA

Thomas Timon Reichl, Bonn, Germany

Josiah D. Rich, M.D., M.P.H., Associate Professor of Medicine and Community Health, Brown University, Providence, RI, USA

Jane Richman, Substance Misuse Worker, United Kingdom

Kay Roberts, Glasgow, United Kingdom

Xavier Majó Roca, Programme on Drug Abuse, Department of Health. Autonomous, Government of Catalonia, Barcelona, Catalonia-Spain

Allan Rosenfield, MD, Mailman School of Public Health, Columbia University, New York, NY, USA

Rainer Rotthoff, Pelangi Communitry Foundation, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia

Cliff Seaward, drug worker, United Kingdom

Gerard M. Schippers, Ph.D., Professor of Addictive Behaviors and Treatment Evaluation, Amsterdam Institute for Addiction Research (AIAR), Amsterdam, The Netherlands

Susan G. Sherman, PhD, MPH, Assistant Professor, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD, USA

Ram Singh Gurung, an Ex-drug user, Advocacy coordinator, Naya Goreto, Kathmandu Nepal

Marcelo Sodelli, Pontifícia Unbiversidade Católica de São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil

Alfred Sommer, Dean and Professor, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD, USA

Dr Mónica Suárez Cardona, Madrid, Spain

Brent Taylor, UNDUN, Kingston, Ontario, Canada

Dr. Gerald Thomas, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada

Juan Gabriel Tokatlian, Director Political Science and International Relations, Universidad de San Andres, Argentina

Bruce G. Trigg, MD, Medical Director, Sexually Transmitted Diseases Program, Department of Health, NM, USA

Pervaiz Tufail, Program Manager, AMAL Human Development Network, Islamabad, Pakistan

Azmi bin Uda, "Positive Muslim", Marang,Kuantan and Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia

Jamie Uhrig, Consultant in HIV Prevention and Care, Chiang Mai, Thailand

Kenneth A. Vail, M.P.H, M.A., Tenderloin AIDS Resource Center, San Francisco, CA, USA

Félix Vanderstricht, Aquadev NGO, Tools & Strategy Dpt., Brussels, Belgium

Camila Vega, Consultant, Regional Cooperative Mechanism to Monitor and Execute the ACCORD Plan of Action, United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime, Regional Centre for East Asia and the Pacific, Bangkok, Thailand

Prof. Edna Paciência Vietta, Clínica Psicológica, Ribeirão Preto, Brazil

Miguel García Villanueva, Head of the Medical Services of the Prison of Pamplona, Spain

David Vlahov, Ph.D., New York, NY, USA

Jennifer Whittall, RhythmicPrinting, Victoria, British Columbia, Canada

Karen Willey, Fulcrum Medical Practice, Middlesbrough, England

Dr. Alex Wodak, Director, Alcohol and Drug Service, St. Vincent's Hospital, Sydney, Australia

Liron B. Wolff, LMSW, New York, NY, USA

Yang Yang, MPH, Yale University of Public Health, New Haven, CT, USA

Yuanyin, The Central University for Nationalities, China

Tomas Zabransky, M.D., Ph.D., Institute for Epidemiology, Public Health and Hygiene, Palacky University Olomouc, Czech Republic