President José Eduardo dos Santos, in power for more than three decades, has faced increasing criticism in Angola for rampant corruption, misrule, and government repression. After the 2012 elections were won by his ruling Popular Movement for the Liberation of Angola (MPLA), the authorities intensified repressive measures, restricting freedom of expression, association, and assembly. The government targets outspoken journalists and activists with criminal defamation lawsuits, unfair trials, and intimidation, and the police use excessive force and engage in arbitrary arrests to stop peaceful anti-government protests and other gatherings.