In the March 4 presidential elections, Uhuru Kenyatta was declared winner in the first round with 6.1 million votes. The Supreme Court upheld the election results, following challenges by Raila Odinga, who was declared runner-up with 5.3 million votes, and others.
Kenyatta, his running-mate William Ruto, and radio journalist, Joshua Sang, are facing charges at the International Criminal Court for crimes against humanity. They were charged following the post-election violence of 2007-2008, which left about 1,300 people dead.
Kenya faces serious challenges with implementing its new constitution and police reforms. Kenya’s military incursion into Somalia sparked retaliatory attacks, allegedly by supporters of the Somali Islamist group al-Shabaab. Kenya’s forces often responded by arbitrarily arresting and beating Somalis in Kenya’s refugee camps.