Kenya’s efforts to tackle an increasing array of security threats have been marred by corruption and ongoing patterns of serious human rights violations by Kenyan security forces, including extrajudicial killings, arbitrary detentions, and torture. The government rarely investigates or prosecutes security officers for such abuse. The government has been slow in implementing key reforms identified in 2008 as crucial to addressing Kenya’s political crisis, including land reform and stronger accountability mechanisms, and security sector reforms, and instead has increasingly tried to restrict civil society and independent media. There has been no tangible progress on accountability for crimes committed during the post-elections violence of 2007-8, which left at least 1,100 dead and 650,000 displaced.