• Sudan’s relations with newly independent South Sudan deteriorated in early 2012, leading to clashes along the shared border. Although the two governments signed an agreement in September, paving the way for resumption of oil production, fighting between Sudanese government forces andrebels continues in Darfur, as well as in Southern Kordofan and Blue Nile states, where Sudan’s indiscriminate bombardment and obstruction of aid forced more than 170,000 to flee to South Sudan. Student-led protests in university towns intensified in response to austerity measures and political grievances. Sudanese authorities harassed and detained opposition party members, civil society leaders, and journalists, and censored the press.

  • Protesters hold posters of Sudan's President Omar Hassan al-Bashir and Janjaweed leader Ali Kosheib (right) outside the European Union Council in Brussels on July 14, 2008.
    Satellite images confirm the wholesale destruction of villages in Central Darfur in an attack in April 2013 by a militia leader sought by the International Criminal Court