Despite Papua New Guinea’s current economic boom, lead by extractive industries like mining, an estimated 40 percent of the country lives in poverty. Pressing human rights issues include gender inequality, violence, corruption, and excessive use of force by police. Rates of family and sexual violence are among the highest in the world and perpetrators are rarely prosecuted. Since 2013, Australia has transferred asylum seekers arriving irregularly by boat in Australian waters to Papua New Guinea’s Manus Island, where they are held in overcrowded and dirty facilities and asylum claims are not processed fairly or expediently. This contributes to detainee physical and mental health problems.