Armed conflicts since April 2019 have deepened the humanitarian, political, and security crises The Tripoli-based UN-backed Government of National Accord and a rival government based in eastern Libya that is aligned with the so-called  Libyan National Army, an armed group, continue to compete for legitimacy and territorial control, each side backed militarily by other countries. The fighting, which includes attacks on civilian homes and infrastructure, killed hundreds of civilians and displaced hundreds of thousands in and around Tripoli. Armed groups, some of them affiliated with the competing governments, carried out extrajudicial executions and abducted, tortured, and disappeared people. The country’s judiciary is in disarray and has collapsed in some areas, and police and law enforcement agencies affiliated with competing governments are dysfunctional. Hundreds of thousands of migrants and asylum seekers, most of them from West Africa and the Horn of Africa, including children often en route to Europe, risk torture, sexual assault, and forced labor by prison guards, coast guard forces, and smugglers while in Libya.

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