Recurring political disputes between the government and parliament have paralyzed political institutions. The most recent elections, held on December 1, were boycotted by opposition groups, including Islamists, liberals, and nationalists. Kuwait continues to exclude thousands of stateless people, known as Bidun, from full citizenship, despite their longstanding roots in Kuwaiti territory. Authorities criminally prosecuted individuals for expressing nonviolent political opinions, including web commentary. Kuwaiti courts issued two landmark rulings cancelling legally-sanctioned discrimination against women in the judicial and education sectors.