Rights bloggers and activists in Ho Chi Minh City during a hunger strike to call for freedom of political prisoners, July 2015.

© 2015 Dan Lam Bao

(ニューヨーク) — ベトナム政府は、平和裡に自らの権利を行使しただけで拘束・投獄されている政治囚を全員即時釈放すべきだと、ヒューマン・ライツ・ウォッチは述べた。ヒューマン・ライツ・ウォッチはウェブページを開設し、政治や宗教を理由に投獄されている100人以上の人びとのうち、15人の事例を紹介している。

2017年11月10日にダナンで開かれるAPEC首脳会議に参加する各国政府指導者と貿易相手国は、ベトナム政府当局に対し、平和的に政府を批判しただけの人びとに対する政府の組織的迫害を止め、表現・結社・集会・信教の自由という基本的権利を自国民に保障するよう求めるべきだ。

 「一党体制を敷くベトナム指導部との写真撮影や通商協定も結構だが、APECで訪越する外国政府関係者は、その同じベトナム指導部が100人以上の政治囚を投獄している事実を直視すべきだ」と、ヒューマン・ライツ・ウォッチのアジア局長ブラッド・アダムズは述べた。「ベトナム政府は、各国代表団をにこやかに迎え入れるホスト役を務めるながら同時に、勇気を持って立ち上がり、人権と民主主義を訴える人びとへの弾圧を強化している。」

1976年の再統一で成立した現在のベトナムでは、基本的自由の行使を理由に人びとが投獄されている。現時点で少なくとも、暴力によらない政府批判を行った105人(リスト参照)が獄中にある。理由は反政府的な見解の表明、非暴力の抗議行動への参加、当局が未承認の宗教団体への加入、ベトナム共産党が権力独占の脅威と見なした民間・政治団体への参加などだ。

直近の判決では10月25日、タイグエン省人民裁判所が学生ブロガーのファン・キム・カン(Phan Kim Khanh)氏(24)に「ベトナム社会主義共和国に反対するプロパガンダの実行」を理由に6年の刑を宣告した。釈放後も、自分の住む地区から出てはいけないとする4年間の行動制限が保護観察処分にも処される。判決を取り消し、氏を即時釈放すべきだと、ヒューマン・ライツ・ウォッチは述べた。

政府に批判的な言論の処罰のため、 ベトナム警察はこの1年で少なくとも28人を「国家安全」関連犯罪で逮捕。直近では10月17日に、ハティン省の環境運動家チャン・ティ・スアン(Tran Thi Xuan)氏を逮捕し、政府転覆を目的とする活動の容疑で立件した。

ベトナムで人権問題を扱うブロガーや活動家は、警察による嫌がらせ、脅迫、不法な監視、身柄拘束、尋問などに日々さらされている。警察は人権活動家に対して出国を妨害するほか、一時的に自宅軟禁にして、抗議行動や他国の外交官との会合への出席を阻止するといったことを頻繁に行っている。当局の支援下で活動する私服男性による殴打や襲撃の被害を受ける活動家も増えている。ベトナムの活動家は逮捕されると、裁判前に警察署で長期間勾留される場合が多く、弁護士や家族との面会も認められない。

「APECや新たな貿易協定の見た目がいくら華やかでも、ベトナムが今なお政府批判を一切許容しない警察国家であるという醜い実態をごまかすことはできない」と、前出のアダムズ局長は述べた。「APECに参加しつつベトナムの政治囚の大義に関心を払わない民主国家の指導者がいれば、世界の舞台で正しい行為をなす機会を逃すという恥を知るべきだ。ベトナムに援助や貿易で関係を持つ国は、ベトナムに対し、人権と法の統治を尊重するもっと民主的な制度への改革を求め、強く働きかけるべきである。」

Human Rights Watch List of Political Prisoners
October 2017

The following is a list of people imprisoned in Vietnam for expressing critical views of the government, taking part in peaceful protests, participating in religious groups not approved by the authorities, or joining civil or political organizations that the ruling Communist Party of Vietnam deems threats to its monopoly on power. This list only includes people who have been convicted and remain in prison and does not include the significant number of detainees who have been arrested, are currently facing trial, and have not yet been convicted. It is also almost certainly incomplete, as it only includes convictions that Human Rights Watch has been able to document.

Due to difficulties in obtaining information about convictions and sentences in Vietnam, this list may differ from those compiled by other organizations, and such differences do not necessarily reflect inaccuracies. Vietnam should be urged to open its legal system – including case files and proceedings – to public scrutiny.

  1. Phan Kim Khánh, born 1993
  2. Nguyễn Văn Oai, born 1981
  3. Trần Thị Nga, born 1977
  4. Nguyễn Ngọc Như Quỳnh (also known as Mẹ Nấm), born 1979
  5. Rơ Ma Đaih (Ama Pôn) born 1989
  6. Puih Bop (Ama Phun), born 1959
  7. Ksor Kam (Ama H’Trưm), born 1965
  8. Rơ Lan Kly (Ama Blan), born 1962
  9. Đinh Nông (Bă Pol), born 1965
  10. Trần Anh Kim, born 1949
  11. Lê Thanh Tùng, born 1968
  12. Cấn Thị Thêu, born 1962
  13. Ksor Phit, born 1970
  14. Siu Đik, born 1970
  15. Nguyễn Hữu Quốc Duy, born 1985
  16. Ksor Púp (Ama Hyung)
  17. Siu Đoang, born 1983
  18. A Jen, born 1984
  19. A Tik, born 1952
  20. Đinh Kữ, born 1972
  21. Thin, born 1979
  22. Gyưnborn 1980
  23. Nguyễn Đình Ngọc (also known as Nguyễn Ngọc Già), born 1966
  24. Ngô Thị Minh Ước, born 1959
  25. Nguyễn Hữu Vinh (also known as Ba Sàm), born 1956
  26. Nguyễn Tiến Thịnh
  27. Hoàng Văn Thu
  28. Nguyễn Lê Châu Bình
  29. Nguyễn Văn Thông, born 1965
  30. Kpuih Khuông
  31. Rmah Khil
  32. Rmah Bloanh
  33. A Kuin (also known as Bă Chăn), born 1974
  34. Ngư (also known as Bă Săn), born 1972
  35. Điểu B’ré (also known as Bạp Bum), born 1969
  36. Điểu By Ơ, born 1967
  37. Đinh Yum, born 1963
  38. Rơ Mah Plă (also known as Rmah Blă; a.k.a Ama Em), born 1968
  39. Siu Tinh (also known as Ama Khâm), born 1978
  40. Rưn
  41. Chi
  42. Đinh Lý
  43. Đinh Ngo
  44. Thạch Thươl, born 1985
  45. Ngô Hào, born 1948
  46. A Tách (also known as Bă Hlôl), born 1959
  47. Rung, born 1979
  48. Jơnh (also known as Chình), born 1952
  49. A Hyum (also known as Bă Kôl), born 1940
  50. Byưk, born 1945
  51. Đinh Lứ, born 1976
  52. Đinh Hrôn, born 1981
  53. Đinh Nguyên Kha, born 1988
  54. Phan Văn Thu, born 1948
  55. Lê Duy Lộc, born 1956
  56. Vương Tấn Sơn, born 1953
  57. Đoàn Đình Nam, born 1951
  58. Nguyễn Kỳ Lạc, born 1951
  59. Tạ Khu, born 1947
  60. Từ Thiện Lương, born 1950
  61. Võ Ngọc Cư, born 1951
  62. Võ Thành Lê, born 1955
  63. Võ Tiết, born 1952
  64. Lê Phúc, born 1951
  65. Đoàn Văn Cư, born 1962
  66. Nguyễn Dinh, born 1968
  67. Phan Thanh Ý, born 1948
  68. Đỗ Thị Hồng, born 1957
  69. Trần Phi Dũng, born 1966
  70. Lê Đức Động, born 1983
  71. Lê Trọng Cư, born 1966
  72. Lương Nhật Quang, born 1987
  73. Nguyễn Thái Bình, born 1986
  74. Trần Quân, born 1984
  75. Phan Thanh Tường, born 1987
  76. Hồ Đức Hòa, born 1974
  77. Nguyễn Đặng Minh Mẫn, born 1985
  78. Tráng A Chớ, born 1985
  79. Kpuil Mel
  80. Kpuil Lễ
  81. Siu Thái (also known as Ama Thương), born 1978
  82. Phạm Thị Phượng, born 1945
  83. Trần Thị Thúy, born 1971
  84. Siu Hlom, born 1967
  85. Siu Nheo, born 1955
  86. Siu Brơm, born 1967
  87. Rah Lan Mlih, born 1966
  88. Rơ Mah Pró, born 1964
  89. Rah Lan Blom, born 1976
  90. Kpă Sinh, born 1959
  91. Rơ Mah Klít, born 1946
  92. Nguyễn Hoàng Quốc Hùng, born 1981
  93. Trần Huỳnh Duy Thức, born 1966
  94. Rmah Hlach (also known as Ama Blut), born 1968
  95. Siu Kơch (also known as Ama Liên), born 1985
  96. Nhi (also known as Bă Tiêm), born 1958
  97. Siu Ben (also known as Ama Yôn)
  98. Rơ Lan Jú (also known as Ama Suit)
  99. Nơh, born 1959
  100. Rôh, born 1962
  101. Pinh, born 1967
  102. Siu Wiu
  103. Brong, born 1964
  104. Y Kur BĐáp
  105. Y Jim Êban