Chicago Director of HRW, Jobi Cates, was quoted in the Chicago Bureau for her work on juvenile life-without-parole (JLWOP) sentence reform in Illinois. In 2012, the US Supreme Court declared mandatory JLWOP a “cruel and unusual punishment” in violation of the 8th amendment. The UN Convention on the Rights of the Child also prohibits JLWOP, a treaty only 2 out of 193 nations did not ratify: Somalia and the US. Since the 2012 Supreme Court decision, however, many states have amended their legislation, accounting for the offender’s youth and life circumstances. While Illinois has yet to make changes, the state is currently considering alternatives to mandatory JLWOP, as well as whether such alternatives should apply retroactively for those already sentenced. Human Rights Watch is working with the Campaign for the Fair Sentencing of Youth and other allies on reform and retroactivity. For more information, please email firstname.lastname@example.org.