Why They Died: Civilian Casualties in Lebanon during the 2006 War

Why They Died

Civilian Casualties in Lebanon during the 2006 War

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More on Human Rights Watch's work on Lebanon

More on Human Rights Watch's work on Israel and Occupied Palestinian Territories

Map: Administrative Divisions of Lebanon

Map: Southern Lebanon

Map: Northern Lebanon

I.    Executive Summary

Israeli Policies Contributing to the Civilian Death Toll

Hezbollah Conduct During the War

Summary of Methodology and Errors Corrected

II.   Recommendations

III.  Methodology

IV.   Legal Standards Applicable to the Conflict

A. Applicable International Law

B. Protections for Civilians and Civilian Objects

V.   Background to the Israel-Hezbollah war

A. Hezbollah’s “Operation Truthful Promise”

B. Israel’s “Operation Change of Direction”

VI.  Hezbollah Conduct during the War

A. Background: Hezbollah’s Structure, Base of Support, and Military Secrecy

B. Hezbollah’s Weapons Storage

C. Hezbollah’s Rocket Firing Positions

D. Claims of Hezbollah “Human Shielding” Practices

E. Hezbollah Firing from Near UN Positions

F. Hezbollah Combatants in Civilian Clothes

VII. Israeli Conduct During the War – Civilian Deaths

A. Israel’s False Presumption of No Civilian Presence and Ineffective Warnings to Evacuate, With Resultant Indiscriminate Bombardment and Indiscriminate Targeting of All Visible Persons or Vehicles in Southern Lebanon or the Beka` Valley as “Hezbollah”

B. Attacks on Presumed Hezbollah Targets and Inadequate Precautions

VIII. Civilian Casualty Incidents Investigated by Human Rights Watch

A. Attacks on Civilian Homes

B. Attacks on Vehicles and Fleeing Civilians

C. Civilian Casualties During Attacks on Infrastructure

D. Deaths from Artillery Strikes

E. Shooting Deaths by IDF Ground Forces


Appendix I: List of Attacks Investigated

Appendix II: Names of Those Killed

Appendix III: Human Rights Watch Letter to Defense Minister Amir Peretz

Appendix IV: Government of Israel Response to Human Rights Watch Letter

September 2007 Volume 19, No. 5(E)