‘我被打过数不清多少次’

日本未成年运动员被虐待

Participation in sport should provide children with the joy of play, and with an opportunity for physical and mental development and growth. In Japan, however, violence and abuse are too often a part of the child athlete’s experience. Photo montage of the Tokyo Olympic Stadium and youth in Japan training and playing popular sports. © 2019 imagenavi/Aflo; 2005 Doable/a.collectionRF/amanaimages; 2020 Human Rights Watch; 2015 Satoru Kobayashi/a.collectionRF/amanaimages; 2016 RYO/amanaimages; Trevor Williams/Getty Images; 2020 Human Rights Watch; 2016 Matsuo/Aflo; AdobeStock

摘要

我被打过数不清多少次。 …教练把全队集合起来,在大家面前朝我脸上打。我被打到流血,他还不停打我。我跟他说我的鼻子流血了,但他就是不停下来。


— 大辉 A.,23岁,福冈,2020年2月

参加体育活动应该让儿童享受到游戏的愉悦,并且有益身心发展和成长。但在日本,未成年运动选手却经常遭受暴力与虐待。对太多日本儿童而言,体育反而成为痛苦、恐惧和压力的源头。

体罚作为训练方法,是日本体育界的传统,普遍被认为是提升竞赛成绩和品格的必要途径。这种不良传统导致在体育界消灭体罚非常困难。教练、父母甚至部分选手本身都坚持体罚有其必要的错误观念──儿童则成为受害者。

有些体育项目,特别是拳击、武装及其他接触性运动,必然涉及参与者之间的肢体暴力。尽管这些体育项目也有运动员安全的疑虑,但本报告并不讨论运动场上正常竞争而造成的伤害。在本报告中,所谓体育暴力或虐待专指与正常训练或竞赛全然无关的行为,例如教练为惩罚而殴打选手脸部,即本节开头所引述的情况。

本报告记录的教练暴力行动包括但不限于:用球棒和竹剑殴打儿童、扇儿童耳光以及把儿童头部压进水中有如溺水。虽然对儿童的虐待包含各种伤害,例如肢体和性的暴力、言语虐待和遗弃,本报告主要讨论肢体暴力,因为这是人权观察所访问的现退役儿童运动员最常提到的经验。言语的和性的受虐经验也列入纪录。

必须有明确且全面性的改革,才能消灭体罚、保护儿童。虽然日本禁止虐待儿童,但法律没有明文规定将禁令延伸至体育活动。日本政府和各体育组织近年已在努力解决儿童体罚问题,但各体育组织适用的保护儿童指导原则至今仍属不具拘束力的建议性质,而且没有明确的申诉机制。

人权观察的研究──包括访谈所有竞争水平的逾50位现退役儿童运动员,线上意见调查,向各种体育组织申请提供资料,以及测试现有的举报机制──发现日本儿童从事体育活动仍可能遭受虐待,并且指出阻滞政府应对与防控虐待事件的制度缺陷。

2012年曾有一起知名案例,大阪一名17岁高中篮球队员因遭受教练不断虐待而自杀。数月后,日本奥运女子柔道队总教练因被控肢体虐待运动员而在2012伦敦奥运前夕自请辞职。

由于这些案件的余波,以及东京申办和筹备2020年奥运会暨帕运会的压力,日本政府和各大体育协会推行了一系列改革。最值得注意的是2013年《消除运动暴力宣言》(敦促各体育组织追查运动员受虐并建立被害人举报制度的书面声明),以及2019年全国体育联合会和其他体育组织的内部管理规则(旨在建立各体育机构通用的指导原则)。然而,这些改革都没有充分或专门解决虐待儿童的问题,也没有法律拘束力,令人怀疑其既有成效和未来效力。

儿童虐待在日本是违法的,而且日本今年刚刚立法全面禁止体罚,这是公民社会团体数十年努力的成果。这项禁令也适用于体育活动。为了进一步明确化,日本政府应该明文规定,法律上对虐待儿童与体罚的禁止范围涵盖体育组织。虽然已有数部法律可以明确认定如此的暴力和虐待为非法(《体育基本法》、《儿童虐待防止法》和《教育基本法》),但现行法律都没有特别提到体育活动中的儿童虐待。

儿童虐待,包括体育中的儿童虐待,亟待以刑事法予以课责和救济。但体育组织也负有首要责任,应解决虐待问题,保护未成年运动员。如果主要体育机构如日本体育厅、日本体育协会和日本奥林匹克委员会不能制定明确而全面的儿童保护规则,就只能仰赖各项运动协会自行对虐待儿童运动员的行为建立预防、举报、调查和惩戒的制度。而这种各自为政的情况,产生了既不一致也不足够的儿童运动员保护机制。

人权观察对日本各大体育组织进行了评估,我们发现可以用来举报虐待的制度结构在形态上存在很大差异,有些组织完全没有这种制度,有些则只接受信件或传真举报。没有公开可得数据能够说明有多少经举报的虐待案件得到调查,而人权观察向各体育组织索取的资料则显示许多组织并未纪录相关信息。当教练被发现虐待未成年运动员,各项运动之间并不存在统一的裁罚标准。许多涉嫌虐待甚至导致运动员自杀的教练,迄今仍持续任教。

这些制度失灵致使儿童运动员很容易遭受虐待。在人权观察在20203月到6月进行的网上问卷调查中,有425名现退役儿童运动员表示曾在参加体育活动时亲身经历肢体虐待;其中17524岁以下的受访者近期或持续遭受虐待,我们因此得以就现行做法及其后果进行评估。在我们回收的问卷中,共有来自45个县级行政区、至少50项不同运动项目的现役或退役儿童运动员谈到他们遭受虐待的情况。

通过访谈,人权观察得以详细记录这些经验的性质及其负面影响。例如,琦玉县前中学棒球队员,现年23岁的翔太(化名),谈到被教练虐待的经验:「他出拳打我下巴,把我打得满口鲜血。然后又抓住衣领把我拎起来。」这在翔太的球队有如家常便饭:「百分之90的队友都曾被体罚。⋯⋯我们常互相开玩笑说,『你今天还没被揍,什么时候轮到你?』」

接受人权观察访问的运动员谈到,教练打人不会被追究责任是既成文化。在最近曾受虐待的儿童运动员受访者中,除了一位以外,都说教练没有受到任何处分。

根据国际法,各国政府有义务确保儿童从事体育活动的权利,以及儿童不受暴力或虐待的权利。为了终结日本儿童运动员受虐,国家必须采取一致措施,以明确的权责和准则为依归。作为起步,政府应当明确禁止以任何形式的虐待作为体育教练技巧,并设立日本安全体育中心,以独立机构地位专责处理体育活动中的儿童虐待。此一机构应负责制定和维护儿童运动员的保护准则,并应作为调查虐待案件的中央行政当局,对施暴的教练作出相称处分。涉及犯罪行为的虐待案件应即时移送检警机关侦办。

随着东京奥运会暨帕运会延至2021年夏季,日本在赛会开幕前有一整年时间可以采取果决行动。这是日本的难得机会,可以向世人展现对儿童运动员福祉的关注,率先为人人都能安全参与体育活动树立标竿。借此,日本将跃居联合国终止暴力全球伙伴的领头羊,充分发扬其对终结暴力对待儿童的承诺。采取保护儿童运动员的果决行动,可让日本儿童感到他们的健康和福祉深受重视,让施虐的教练警觉自己的行为将不再受到容忍,并为其他国家终结体育界儿童虐待问题树立楷模。

 

主要建议

对日本国会:

  • 修正《体育基本法》或制定新法,明文规定:

    • 禁止体育组织中教练对儿童运动员一切形式的虐待;

    • 明确运动员的权利,包括参与体育活动不受虐待的权利;

    • 所有儿童体育教练必须接受培训;以及

    • 任何成年人得知儿童运动员遭受虐待时必须予以举报。

  • 修正《儿童虐待防止法》,扩大第2条有关儿童虐待定义的适用范围,明文纳入体育组织中的儿童虐待。

  • 设立日本安全体育中心,以独立机构地位专责处理日本体育界儿童虐待问题。在各种体育组织之间,此一独立机构将作为日本体育界处理所有儿童运动员受虐案件的中央行政当局。

    • 制定有关儿童运动员受虐的预防和保护准则,确保该准则得到日本各大体育组织充分遵守;

    • 直接受理儿童运动员受虐案件的申诉或举报,以及通过中央举报系统汇整所有现行举报机制所获信息;

    • 对所有体育组织中的儿童运动员受虐案件进行调查,对涉案教练给予相称处分——例如注销教练执照、暂停或取消教练资格——并为受处分教练提供申诉管道;

    • 于适当时将虐待案件移交执法机关进行刑事侦办;

    • 记录并发布举报案件数量及调查结果相关数据;
    • 建立受处分教练公开登录制度;

    • 确保受虐儿童运动员获得免费、持续性的专业心理咨询;

    • 为所有儿童体育教练制定训练准则;以及

    • 实施有关此一独立机构功能与运作的教育宣导活动。

  • 为日本安全体育中心提供必要经费,维持足以执行前述各项工作的人力与资源。

对日本体育厅:

  • 制定新指针,明确下列事项:

    • 禁止体育组织教练对儿童运动员的一切形式虐待;

    • 明确运动员应享的各项权利,包括参与体育活动不受虐待的权利;

    • 要求所有儿童体育教练接受培训;

    • 要求所有成年人得知儿童运动员受虐时必须加以举报。

  • 修正2019年体育管理规则,明定所有全国性体育联合会及正规体育组织必须遵守该规则。修正后的规则应纳入有关儿童运动员受虐之举报、调查和纪律处分措施的明确准则,确保全国各地、各种体育项目对施虐教练给予一致处罚。修正后的规则也应强制要求所有成年人,当得知儿童运动员受虐时须向有关当局举报,包括向执法机关检举相关犯罪行为。

对文部科学省:

  • 在第3期体育基本计划(20222026年)中,加强并重视保护儿童运动员免于虐待,并应明确说明达成此一目标的具体措施。

  • 修订文部科学省对校园虐待问题的年度调查,提供校园体育虐待事件相关数据。

  • 要求所有校园体育教练参加儿童保护培训及认证。

对日本体育协会、日本奥林匹克委员会和日本障碍者体育协会:

  • 要求所有会员组织体育教练参加儿童保护培训及认证。
 

[1] Aaron Miller, “Taibatsu: ‘corporal punishment’ in Japanese socio-cultural context,” Japan Forum, vol. 21, no. 2 (April 2010), pp. 233-254.

[2] Human Rights Watch interview with Makoto Y., Fukuoka, February 18, 2020.

[3] Human Rights Watch interview with Tetsuya O., Chiba, February 20, 2020.

[4] Human Rights Watch interview with Noboru E., Tokyo, February 12, 2020.

[5] Human Rights Watch interview with Naoko D., Tokyo, February 24, 2020.

[6] Mike Burke, “108 school judo class deaths but no charges, only silence,” Japan Times, August 26, 2010, https://www.japantimes.co.jp/news/2010/08/26/national/108-school-judo-class-deaths-but-no-charges-only-silence/ (accessed July 6, 2020).

[7] Ryo Uchida, “Facing the cervical accident of the middle-advanced person in the 12th fatal accident of school judo,” Yahoo Japan, May 16, 2016, https://news.yahoo.co.jp/byline/ryouchida/20160516-00057737/ (accessed July 6, 2020).

[8] Mike Burke, “108 school judo class deaths but no charges, only silence,” Japan Times, August 26, 2010, https://www.japantimes.co.jp/news/2010/08/26/national/108-school-judo-class-deaths-but-no-charges-only-silence/ (accessed July 6, 2020).

[9] Michael L. Butterworth, “Sport and Militarism: Contemporary Global Perspectives”, Routledge, June 2017.

[10] Brent McDonald and Keiki Kawai, “Punishing coaching: bukatsudo and the normalization of coach violence”, Japan Forum, vol. 21, no. 2 (August 2016): 196-217.

[11] Ibid., p.204.

[12] Ibid., p.208.

[13] Haruka Hagiwara and Sandy Wolfson, “Attitudes towards soccer coaches’ use of punishment in Japan and England: A cross-cultural study,” International Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, vol. 11, no.1 (September 2012), pp. 57-69.

[14] Ed Odeven, “Veteran athletes, coaches adamant that corporal punishment has no place in sports,” Japan Times, 20 January 2013, https://www.japantimes.co.jp/sports/2013/01/20/bj-league/veteran-athletes-coaches-adamant-that-corporal-punishment-has-no-place-in-sports/#.XoOjddNKjBI (accessed June 29, 2020).

[15] “Student commits suicide after being beaten by school basketball coach,” Japan Today, January 9, 2013, https://japantoday.com/category/national/student-commits-suicide-after-being-beaten-by-school-basketball-coach (accessed June 29, 2020).

[16] “Osaka basketball coach tries to justify physical discipline after beaten boy's suicide,” Japan Today, January 12, 2013, https://www.japantimes.co.jp/news/2013/01/12/national/social-issues/osaka-basketball-coach-tries-to-justify-physical-discipline-after-beaten-boys-suicide/#.XnkA-C2ZPq1 (accessed June 29, 2020).

[17] “Japan coach gets suspended jail over suicide of abused teen,” Straits Times, September 26, 2013, https://www.straitstimes.com/asia/japan-coach-gets-suspended-jail-over-suicide-of-abused-teen (accessed June 29, 2020).

[18] Justin McCurry, “Japanese women's judo coach resigns over claims he abused athletes,” The Guardian, February 1, 2013, https://www.theguardian.com/world/2013/feb/01/japanese-womens-judo-coach-resigns (accessed June 29, 2020).

[19] “Judo abuse scandal hits Tokyo Olympic bid,” USA Today, February 8, 2013, https://www.usatoday.com/story/sports/olympics/2013/02/08/judo-abuse-scandal-tokyo-olympics-bid/1901221/ (accessed June 29, 2020).

[20] Ibid; Nobuyoshi Tsujiguchi and Eisuke Okamura, "Worries and Suffers of Top Judo Female Athletes: Working with the 15 Gentle and Strong Players," Can Japan's Sports Community Wipe Out Violence?, 2013.

[21] Japanese Olympic Committee athlete survey, 2013; “JOC Survey, 10% of Athletes Experienced Harassment,” Nihon Keizai Shimbun, March 19, 2013, https://www.nikkei.com/article/DGXNASDG1903V_Z10C13A3CR8000/ (accessed May 25, 2020).

[22] DAITAIREN survey, 2013, http://daitairen.or.jp/2013/wp-content/uploads/2015/01/f2cb4f9e1c5f5e1021e44042438f44ab.pdf (accessed June 29, 2020).

[23] Japan Sport Association response to Human Rights Watch data request.

[24] UNICEF, “Violence Against Children in East Asia and the Pacific: A Regional Review and Synthesis of Findings,” 2014, https://www.unicef.org/eap/media/2901/file/violence.pdf (accessed June 29, 2020).

[25] Dan Gordon, “Japan: ‘No Matter What Happens, Stand Up,’” in ed. George Gmelch and Daniel A. Nathan, Baseball Beyond Our Borders, (Lincoln, Nebraska: University of Nebraska Press, 2017), pp 153-183.

[26] Human Rights Watch interview with Kenta K., Tokyo, February 19, 2020.

[27] Human Rights Watch interview with Hajime W., Kumamoto, February 18, 2020.

[28] Human Rights Watch interview with Shota C., video-conference, February 4, 2020.

[29] Human Rights Watch interview with Tsukuru U., video-conference, March 26, 2020.

[30] Human Rights Watch interview with Yuma T., Kumamoto, February 18, 2020.

[31] Ibid.

[32] Human Rights Watch interview with Daiki A., Fukuoka, February 17, 2020.

[33] Human Rights Watch interview with Keisuke W., Osaka, February 12, 2020.

[34]"A volleyball coach at Ashikaga University Senior High School may have beaten a second year student, who was kicked and injured", Mainichi Shimbun, November 30, 2017, https://mainichi.jp/articles/20171130/k00/00m/040/168000c?fbclid=IwAR0CA_OXDC8-JeBZnMA6FDRBdeLulrvlSgboKtvm6rG9WJXDpyMSF6UkBPY (accessed July 3, 2020).

[35]ANN NEWS, “Male team manager taibatsu to athletes,” video report, November, 13, 2018; “Violence to team members, student baseball examination meeting decides on one year suspension for former professional team manager Hiroki Sakai,” Sankei Shumbun, December 18, 2018, https://www.sankei.com/sports/news/181218/spo1812180025-n1.html (accessed May 25, 2020).

[36] Human Rights Watch interview with Kaoru Z., video-conference, March 23, 2020.

[37] Human Rights Watch interview with Shota C., video-conference, February 4, 2020.

[38] Human Rights Watch interview with Moe J., Tokyo, February 15, 2020.

[39] Human Rights Watch online survey.

[40] Human Rights Watch interview with Moe J., Tokyo, February 15, 2020.

[41] Ibid.

[42] Ibid.

[43] Ibid.

[44] Ibid.

[45] Ibid.

[46] Ibid.

[47] Ibid.

[48] Human Rights Watch interview with Moe J., Tokyo, February 15, 2020.

[49] Human Rights Watch online survey.

[50] World Health Organization, “Responding to Children and Adolescents Who Have Been Sexually Abused,” 2017, https://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/handle/10665/259270/9789241550147-eng.pdf;jsessionid=34D104F399603D9A32AF851BAFCAA8C5?sequence=1 (accessed June 29, 2020).

[51] Human Rights Watch interview with Chieko T., email, May 12, 2020.

[52] Ibid.

[53] Human Rights Watch interview with a manager of a professional women’s soccer team, video conference, March 26, 2020.

[54] Human Rights Watch interview with Kaoru Z., video-conference, March 23, 2020.

[55] “Parents say coach’s ‘verbal violence’ led to son’s suicide,” The Asahi Shimbun, January 27, 2019 

http://www.asahi.com/ajw/articles/AJ201901270003.html (accessed June 29, 2020).

[56] “Teacher’s verbal abuse, threats blamed for 15-year-old girl’s suicide,” Japan Today, May 7, 2019, https://japantoday.com/category/national/teacher%E2%80%99s-verbal-abuse-blamed-for-15-year-old-girl%E2%80%99s-suicide?comment-order=latest (accessed June 29, 2020).

[57] Human Rights Watch interview with Junko M., video-conference, April 16, 2020.

[58] Human Rights Watch interview with Tomohiko C., Tokyo, February 10, 2020.

[59] Human Rights Watch interview with Chieko T., email, May 12, 2020.

[60] Global Initiative to End All Forms of Corporal Punishment of Children, “Corporal punishment of children: review of research on its impact and associations,” 2016, http://endcorporalpunishment.org/wp-content/uploads/research/Research-effects-review-2016-06.pdf (accessed June 29, 2020).

[61] Human Rights Watch interview with Dorothy Rozga, video-conference, April 9, 2020.

[62] Human Rights Watch interview with Professor Osamu Takamine, Tokyo, February 8, 2020.

[63] Human Rights Watch interview with Naomi Masuko, video-conference, April 9, 2020.

[64] Ibid.

[65] Articles 204 (injury) and 208 (assault), Penal Code of Japan, http://www.japaneselawtranslation.go.jp/law/detail/?id=1960&re=02&vm=04 (accessed July 2, 2020).

[66] “Japan coach gets suspended jail over suicide of abused teen,” Straits Times, September 26, 2013, https://www.straitstimes.com/asia/japan-coach-gets-suspended-jail-over-suicide-of-abused-teen (accessed July 2, 2020).

[67] Human Rights Watch interview with Lawyer Hiroyuki Kusaba, video-conference, May 14, 2020.

[68] Human Rights Watch online survey.

[69] “Volleyball coach kick team member, kneeled down and saying it is taibatsu,” The Asahi Shimbun, November 30, 2017, https://www.asahi.com/articles/ASKCZ33CMKCZUUHB005.html (accessed on June 9, 2020).

[70] “Teacher’s verbal abuse, threats blamed for 15-year-old girl’s suicide,” Japan Today, 7 May 2019, https://japantoday.com/category/national/teacher%E2%80%99s-verbal-abuse-blamed-for-15-year-old-girl%E2%80%99s-suicide?comment-order=latest (accessed July 2, 2020); Takahagi City Board of Education response to Human Rights Watch inquiry, May 28, 2020.

[71] Nagoya Keizai University Senior High School response to Human Rights Watch inquiry, May 20, 2020.

[72] Ibid.

[73] “Former 60kg world champion Ryuji Sonoda to become a coach,” PARK 24, April 1, 2016, http://judo.park24.co.jp/information/2016_04_01_4504.html (accessed June 9, 2020).

[74] Human Rights Watch interview with Kaoru Z., video-conference, March 23, 2020.

[75] Human Rights Watch interview with Chieko T., email, May 12, 2020.

[76] Human Rights Watch interview with a manager of a professional women’s soccer team, video conference, March 26, 2020.

[77] Human Rights Watch interview with Yuko Shimazawa, Tokyo, February 7, 2020.

[78] The Basic Act on Sport, 2011, https://www.mext.go.jp/a_menu/sports/kihonhou/attach/1336024.htm (accessed June 29, 2020).

[79] Ibid.

[80] Ibid.

[81] Ibid.

[82] Human Rights Watch interview with Takuya Yamazaki, video-conference, April 7, 2020.

[83] MEXT, "The Sport Basic Plan," March 30, 2012. https://www.mext.go.jp/component/a_menu/sports/detail/__icsFiles/afieldfile/2012/04/02/1319359_3_1.pdf (accessed June 29, 2020).

[84] Japan Sports Agency, “Background of establishment,” https://www.mext.go.jp/sports/en/about_us/background/ (accessed June 29, 2020). 

[85] Sasakawa Sports Foundation, “White Paper on Sport in Japan,” 2017, http://www.ssf.or.jp/Portals/0/resources/outline/en/pdf/SportWhitePaperinJapan2017_c.pdf, (accessed June 29, 2020). 

[86] Japan Sports Agency, “Organizational chart,” https://www.mext.go.jp/sports/en/about_us/soshiki/1362177.html (accessed June 29, 2020).

[87] JSA response to Human Rights Watch data request, April 6, 2020.

[88] “The Declaration on the Elimination of Violence in Sports,” 2013, https://www.joc.or.jp/english/aboutjoc/statement/130425.html (accessed June 29, 2020).

[89] Ibid.

[90] Human Rights Watch interview with Lawyer Shoichi Sugiyama, video-conference, April 6, 2020.

[91] Japan Sports Agency, “Governance Code for National Sport Federations”, 2019, https://www.mext.go.jp/sports/b_menu/sports/mcatetop10/list/1412105.html (accessed June 29, 2020). 

[92] Ibid.

[93] Japan Sport Association response to Human Rights Watch data request, July 7, 2020.

[94] Japan Sports Agency, “Governance Code for National Sport Federations” and “Governance Code for Regular Sports Organizations”, 2019, https://www.mext.go.jp/sports/b_menu/sports/mcatetop10/list/1412105.html(accessed June 29, 2020).

[95] Human Rights Watch analysis of sports organizations’ abuse reporting systems. Human Rights Watch interns attempted to identify the available reporting systems for over 60 sports organizations; the process was difficult, with information often unavailable or difficult to verify online. We focused our analysis on these 14 major organizations, which are reflective of the broader inconsistency in available reporting systems.

[96] Human Rights Watch interview with Lawyer Shoichi Sugiyama, video-conference, April 6, 2020.

[97] Human Rights Watch interview with Keiko Kobayashi, video-conference, April 20, 2020.

[98] Human Rights Watch interview with Lawyer Shoichi Sugiyama, video-conference, April 6, 2020.

[99] Ibid.

[100] JSPO, “You are the future of sport: Activities for the 2018 fiscal year,” p. 28. Copy on file with Human Rights Watch.

[101] Human Rights Watch interview with Tsukuru U., video-conference, March 26, 2020.

[102] Japan Sports Agency response to Human Rights Watch data request, April 6, 2020.

[103] Japan Sport Association, “Hotline for violent acts etc in sports,” https://www.japan-sports.or.jp/about/tabid983.html (accessed June 29, 2020).

[104] Japan Sport Law Support and Research Center, “Japan Sport Association Consulting Office.” http://jsl-src.org/?page_id=39 (accessed June 29, 2020).

[105] Japan Sport Association response to Human Rights Watch data request, May 12, 2020.

[106] Human Rights Watch interview with Lawyer Shoichi Sugiyama, video-conference, April 6, 2020; Japan Sport Council “Third party consultation and investigation system hotline,” https://www.jpnsport.go.jp/corp/gyoumu/tabid/517/Default.aspx (accessed June 2, 2020).

[107] “Opening of hotline for athletes and coaches,” Japanese Olympic Committee, March 19, 2013, https://www.joc.or.jp/news/detail.html?id=2491 (accessed June 29, 2020).

[108] Human Rights Watch interview with Lawyer Shoichi Sugiyama, video-conference, April 6, 2020.

[109] “300,000 yen fine to former gymnastics coach: first case after JOC hotline established,” The Hokkaido Shimbun Press, March 25, 2015.

[110] “Japan Gymnastics Association - Tomoko Hagiwara and others nominated for Board members,” Jiji.com, June 8, 2019, https://news.myjcom.jp/sp/sports/story/all/190608F894.html (accessed June 29, 2020).

[111] Human Rights Watch interview with Lawyer Takuya Yamazaki, video-conference, April 7, 2020.

[112] Japan Volleyball Association, “Action Plan 2020,” February 26, 2020.

[113] Japan Volleyball Association response to Human Rights Watch data request, April 16, 2020.

[114] Japan Softball Association response to Human Rights Watch data request, May 13, 2020.

[115] Japan Sport Association response to Human Rights Watch data request, May 12, 2020.

[116] Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology “Notice on through coaching based on student’s understanding and ban on taibatsu,” No.1269, March 13, 2013, https://www.mext.go.jp/a_menu/shotou/seitoshidou/1331907.html (accessed June 29, 2020).

[117] Human Rights Watch interview with Lawyer Takuya Yamazaki, video-conference, April 7, 2020.

[118] Handout provided by Japan Sports Agency regarding JSPO’s “Model, Core Curriculum for Fostering Good Coaches”, 2019. Copy on file with Human Rights Watch.

[119] Japan Sport Association, “Model, Core Curriculum for Fostering Good Coaches”, 2019. Copy on file with Human Rights Watch.

[120] Ibid.

[121] Japan Sport Association, “Model, Core Curriculum for Fostering Good Coaches”, 2019. Copy on file with Human Rights Watch.

[122] Japan Sport Association response to Human Rights Watch data request, April 17, 2020.

[123] Japan Sport Association, “Report on school club sport coaches,” July 2014, https://www.japan-sports.or.jp/Portals/0/data/katsudousuishin/doc/houkokusho.pdf (accessed May 25, 2020). 

[124] Human Rights Watch interview with an expert affiliate of JSPO, video-conference, March 31, 2020.

[125] Human Rights Watch interview with Naomi Masuko, video-conference, April 9, 2020.

[126] Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology “Guidelines on Coaching at School Athletic Club Activities,” May 2013, https://www.mext.go.jp/sports/b_menu/sports/mcatetop04/list/detail/__icsFiles/afieldfile/2018/06/12/1372445_1.pdf (accessed June 29, 2020).

[127]Japan Sports Association, “A Comprehensive Guideline for Athletic Club Activities,” March 2018. Copy on file with Human Rights Watch.

[128] U.S. Center for SafeSport, https://uscenterforsafesport.org/about/our-work/ (accessed June 29, 2020).

[129] Tracy Connor & Sarah Fitzpatrick, “Gymnast Maggie Nichols was first to report abuse by Larry Nassar,” NBC News, June 9, 2018, https://www.nbcnews.com/news/us-news/gymnast-maggie-nichols-was-first-report-abuse-larry-nassar-n836046

(accessed June 29, 2020).

[130] Ibid.

[131] Dakota Crawford & Amy Hamline, “Follow IndyStar’s Larry Nassar, USA Gymnastics and Larry Nassar from start to finish,” IndyStar, https://www.indystar.com/story/sports/2018/01/24/indystar-larry-nassar-usa-gymnastics-investigation/1062120001/, (accessed June 29, 2020). 

[132] Letter from U.S. Senators Dianne Feinstein, Patrick Leahy, RIchard Blumenthal, & Joe Donnelly to USA Gymnastics President and CEO Steve Penny, August 5, 2016, https://www.documentcloud.org/documents/3006350-US-Senators-8-5-16-USA-Gymnastics-Letter.html (accessed June 29, 2020). 

[133] Scott Cacciola and Victor Mather, “Larry Nassar sentencing: ‘I just signed your death warrant,’” New York Times, January 24, 2018, https://www.nytimes.com/2018/01/24/sports/larry-nassar-sentencing.html (accessed June 29, 2020).

[134] Protecting Young Victims from Sexual Abuse and Safe Sport Authorization Act of 2017, https://www.govinfo.gov/content/pkg/PLAW-115publ126/pdf/PLAW-115publ126.pdf (accessed June 29, 2020).

[135] U.S. Center for SafeSport, https://uscenterforsafesport.org/ (accessed June 29, 2020).

[136] Rachel Axon and Nancy Armour, “SafeSport CEO Shellie Pfohl will step down at year’s end,” USA Today, February 21, 2019, https://www.usatoday.com/story/sports/olympics/2018/12/28/shellie-pfohl-safesports-ceo-stepping-down/2438229002/ (accessed June 29, 2020).

[137] Letter from Olympic and Paralympic Athletes to United States Congress, n.d., https://img1.wsimg.com/blobby/go/573edb75-6173-4bec-8d91-9972c89dc2cd/downloads/Olympic%20Movement%20Member%20Support%20Ltr%20S2330%20Comm.pdf?ver=1583960765570&fbclid=IwAR3FAEfrLrdIgxFxIiSMjcqGq0xcjzlubewpXNhiu9VVZJsMrd31oVlDg8Y (accessed June 29, 2020).

[138] US Center for SafeSport, “Centralized Disciplinary Database,” https://uscenterforsafesport.org/response-and-resolution/disciplinary-database/ (accessed June 29, 2020).

[139] US Center for SafeSport, “2018 Form 990,” https://bit.ly/2LdOQG0, (accessed June 29, 2020).

[140] “Sporting organizations double funding to SafeSport Center,” USA Today, September 21, 2018, https://www.usatoday.com/story/sports/olympics/2018/09/21/sports-organizations-double-funding-to-safesport-center/37894413/ (accessed June 29, 2020).

[141] Rachel Axon and Nancy Armour, “SafeSport CEO Shellie Pfohl will step down at year’s end,” USA Today, February 21, 2019, https://www.usatoday.com/story/sports/olympics/2018/12/28/shellie-pfohl-safesports-ceo-stepping-down/2438229002/ (accessed June 29, 2020).

[142] US Center for SafeSport, “Centralized Disciplinary Database: Matters Adjudicated by the NGBs/LAOs/USOPC,” https://uscenterforsafesport.org/wp-content/uploads/2019/12/CDD-Link-2-NGB-LAO-USOPC-mattersv2.pdf (accessed June 29, 2020).

[143] Prairie Research Associates and the Sport Dispute Resolution Center of Canada, “Pilot Project Evaluation Report Canadian Sport Helpline and Investigation Unit,” March 31, 2020.

[144] Sport Resolutions, “NSP,” https://www.sportresolutions.co.uk/services/national-safeguarding/panel (accessed June 29, 2020).

[145] Sport Resolutions, “Service Overview,” https://www.sportresolutions.co.uk/services/investigations-and-reviews/service-overview (accessed June 29, 2020).

[146] Sport Resolutions, “NSP Investigations,” https://www.sportresolutions.co.uk/services/national-safeguarding/investigations (accessed June 29, 2020).

[147] International Olympic Committee, “IOC Adopts Consensus Statement on ‘Sexual Harassment & Abuse in Sport,” February 8, 2007, https://stillmed.olympic.org/Documents/THE%20IOC/OFFICIAL%20SHA%20Statement.pdf (accessed June 29, 2020).

[148] Ibid.

[149] British Journal of Sports Medicine, “International Olympic Committee consensus statement: harassment and abuse (non-accidental violence) in sport,” https://bjsm.bmj.com/content/50/17/1019 (accessed April 30, 2020).

[150] Ibid.

[151] International Olympic Committee, “Code of Ethics,” 2016, https://stillmed.olympic.org/media/Document%20Library/OlympicOrg/IOC/What-We-Do/Leading-the-Olympic-Movement/Code-of-Ethics/EN-IOC-Code-of-Ethics-2016.pdf (accessed June 29, 2020).

[152] International Olympic Committee, “Safeguarding Toolkit,” 2017, https://www.olympic.org/athlete365/safeguarding/ (accessed June 29, 2020).

[153] Ibid.

[154] Ibid.

[155] Margo Mountjoy, Tine Vertommen, Kirsty Burrows, Susan Greinig,” #SafeSport: safeguarding initiatives at the Youth Olympic Games 2018,” Journal of Sports Medicine, 2020, vol. 54:176–182, https://bjsm.bmj.com/content/bjsports/54/3/176.full.pdf (accessed June 29, 2020).

[156] International Olympic Committee, Olympic Charter, June 26, 2019, https://stillmed.olympic.org/media/Document%20Library/OlympicOrg/General/EN-Olympic-Charter.pdf (accessed June 29, 2020).

[157] Ibid.

[158] International Safeguarding Children in Sport Working Group, International Safeguards for Children in Sport, https://www.sportanddev.org/sites/default/files/downloads/international-safeguards-for-children-in-sport-version-to-view-online.pdf (accessed April 30, 2020).

[159] Mary Harvey, “Protecting Children in the Sports Environment,” February 2020, https://www.sporthumanrights.org/en/resources/protecting-children-in-the-sports-environment-keynote-at-ispcan-2020-qatar (accessed June 29, 2020).

[160] UNESCO, “Kazan Action Plan,” 2017, https://www.un.org/development/desa/dspd/wp-content/uploads/sites/22/2018/06/10.pdf (accessed June 29, 2020); UN Sustainable Development Goal Indicators, Goal 16, Section 2.

[161] The Commonwealth, “Measuring the Contribution of sport, physical education, and physical activity to the Sustainable Development Goals,” 2019, https://thecommonwealth.org/sites/default/files/inline/Sport-SDGs-Indicator-Framework.pdf (accessed June 29, 2020).

[162] UNICEF, “Children’s Rights in Sport Principles,” 2018, https://childinsport.jp/en/ (accessed June 29, 2020).

[163] UNICEF, “Protecting Children from Violence in Sport,” 2010, https://www.unicef-irc.org/publications/pdf/violence_in_sport.pdf (accessed June 29, 2020).

[164] Child Abuse Prevention Law, Article 3, 2000.

[165] Child Abuse Prevention Law, Article 2, 2000.

[166] Aaron Miller, “Taibatsu: ‘corporal punishment’ in Japanese socio-cultural context,” Japan Forum, vol. 21, no. 2 (April 2010): 233-254.

[167] Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology “Notice on through coaching based on student’s understanding and ban on taibatsu,” No.1269, March 13, 2013, https://www.mext.go.jp/a_menu/shotou/seitoshidou/1331907.htm (accessed June 29, 2020).

[168] Child Abuse Prevention Law, Article 14, 2019. It states, “A person who exercises parental authority over a child shall not discipline the child by inflicting corporal punishment upon him/her.”

[169] Basic Act on Sport, Preamble, 2011.

[170] UN General Assembly, Convention on the Rights of the Child, 20 November 1989, United Nations, Treaty Series, vol. 1577, p. 3, https://www.refworld.org/docid/3ae6b38f0.html (accessed June 29, 2020).

[171] UN Committee on the Rights of the Child (CRC), General comment No. 17: The right of the child to rest, leisure, play, recreational activities, cultural life and the arts (art. 31), 17 April 2013, CRC/C/GC/17 (2017), https://www.refworld.org/docid/51ef9bcc4.html (accessed June 29, 2020).

[172] UN Committee on the Rights of the Child (CRC), General comment No. 13: The right of the child to freedom from all forms of violence, 18 April 2011, CRC/C/GC/13 (2011), https://www.refworld.org/docid/4e6da4922.html (accessed June 29, 2020).

[173] Ibid.

[174] UN Committee on the Rights of the Child (CRC), General comment No. 8 (2006): The right of the child to protection from corporal punishment and other cruel and degrading forms of punishment, 2 March 2007, CRC/C/GC/8 (2006), https://resourcecentre.savethechildren.net/node/10263/pdf/gc8.pdf (accessed June 29, 2020).

[175] Ibid.

[176] Ibid.

[177] UN HRC, “Report of the working group on the universal periodic review Japan addendum conclusions and/or recommendations,” A/HRC/8/44, June 12, 2008.

[178] UN HRC, “Report of the working on the universal periodic review Japan addendum views on conclusions and/or recommendations, voluntary commitments and replies presented by the state under review” A/HRC/37/15, March 1, 2018.

[179] Ibid.

[180] End Violence Against Children, https://www.end-violence.org/ (accessed June 29, 2020).

[181] Speech by Parliamentary Vice-Minister for Foreign Affairs Manabu Horii at the 2030 Agenda for Children: End Violence Solutions Summit, February 15, 2018, https://www.mofa.go.jp/fp/hr_ha/page3e_000826.html (accessed June 29, 2020).

[182] UN CRC, “Concluding observations on the combined 4th and 5th periodic reports of Japan,” CRC/C/JPN/CO/4-5, March 5, 2019.

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