「我被打過數不清多少次」

日本未成年運動員被虐待

Participation in sport should provide children with the joy of play, and with an opportunity for physical and mental development and growth. In Japan, however, violence and abuse are too often a part of the child athlete’s experience. Photo montage of the Tokyo Olympic Stadium and youth in Japan training and playing popular sports. © 2019 imagenavi/Aflo; 2005 Doable/a.collectionRF/amanaimages; 2020 Human Rights Watch; 2015 Satoru Kobayashi/a.collectionRF/amanaimages; 2016 RYO/amanaimages; Trevor Williams/Getty Images; 2020 Human Rights Watch; 2016 Matsuo/Aflo; AdobeStock

摘要

我被打過數不清多少次。⋯教練把全隊集合起來,在大家面前朝我臉上打。我被打到流血,他還不停打我。我跟他說我的鼻子流血了,但他就是不停下來。


大輝 A.,23歲,福岡,20202

參加體育活動應該讓兒童享受到遊戲的愉悅,並且有益身心發展和成長。但在日本,未成年運動選手卻經常遭受暴力與虐待。對太多日本兒童而言,體育反而成為痛苦、恐懼和壓力的源頭。

體罰作為訓練方法,是日本體育界的傳統,普遍被認為是提升競賽成績和品格的必要途徑。這種不良傳統導致在體育界消滅體罰非常困難。教練、父母甚至部分選手本身都堅持體罰有其必要的錯誤觀念──兒童則成為受害者。

有些體育項目,特別是拳擊、武裝及其他接觸性運動,必然涉及參與者之間的肢體暴力。儘管這些體育項目也有運動員安全的疑慮,但本報告並不討論運動場上正常競爭而造成的傷害。在本報告中,所謂體育暴力或虐待專指與正常訓練或競賽全然無關的行為,例如教練為懲罰而毆打選手臉部,即本節開頭所引述的情況。

本報告記錄的教練暴力行動包括但不限於:用球棒和竹劍毆打兒童、搧兒童耳光以及把兒童頭部壓進水中有如溺水。雖然對兒童的虐待包含各種傷害,例如肢體和性的暴力、言語虐待和遺棄,本報告主要討論肢體暴力,因為這是人權觀察所訪問的現退役兒童運動員最常提到的經驗。言語的和性的受虐經驗也列入紀錄。

必須有明確且全面性的改革,才能消滅體罰、保護兒童。雖然日本禁止虐待兒童,但法律沒有明文規定將禁令延伸至體育活動。日本政府和各體育組織近年已在努力解決兒童體罰問題,但各體育組織適用的保護兒童指導原則至今仍屬不具拘束力的建議性質,而且沒有明確的申訴機制。

人權觀察的研究──包括訪談所有競爭水平的逾50位現退役兒童運動員,線上意見調查,向各種體育組織申請提供資料,以及測試現有的舉報機制──發現日本兒童從事體育活動仍可能遭受虐待,並且指出阻滯政府應對與防控虐待事件的制度缺陷。

2012年曾有一起知名案例,大阪一名17歲高中籃球隊員因遭受教練不斷虐待而自殺。數月後,日本奧運女子柔道隊總教練因被控肢體虐待運動員而在2012倫敦奧運前夕自請辭職。

由於這些案件的餘波,以及東京申辦和籌備2020年奧運會暨帕運會的壓力,日本政府和各大體育協會推行了一系列改革。最值得注意的是2013年《消除運動暴力宣言》(敦促各體育組織追查運動員受虐並建立被害人舉報制度的書面聲明),以及2019年全國體育聯合會和其他體育組織的內部管理規則(旨在建立各體育機構通用的指導原則)。然而,這些改革都沒有充分或專門解決虐待兒童的問題,也沒有法律拘束力,令人懷疑其既有成效和未來效力。

兒童虐待在日本是違法的,而且日本今年剛剛立法全面禁止體罰,這是公民社會團體數十年努力的成果。這項禁令也適用於體育活動。為了進一步明確化,日本政府應該明文規定,法律上對虐待兒童與體罰的禁止範圍涵蓋體育組織。雖然已有數部法律可以明確認定如此的暴力和虐待為非法(《體育基本法》、《兒童虐待防止法》和《教育基本法》),但現行法律都沒有特別提到體育活動中的兒童虐待。

兒童虐待,包括體育中的兒童虐待,亟待以刑事法予以課責和救濟。但體育組織也負有首要責任,應解決虐待問題,保護未成年運動員。如果主要體育機構如日本體育廳、日本體育協會和日本奧林匹克委員會不能制定明確而全面的兒童保護規則,就只能仰賴各項運動協會自行對虐待兒童運動員的行為建立預防、舉報、調查和懲戒的制度。而這種各自為政的情況,產生了既不一致也不足夠的兒童運動員保護機制。

人權觀察對日本各大體育組織進行了評估,我們發現可以用來舉報虐待的制度結構在形態上存在很大差異,有些組織完全沒有這種制度,有些則只接受信件或傳真舉報。沒有公開可得數據能夠說明有多少經舉報的虐待案件得到調查,而人權觀察向各體育組織索取的資料則顯示許多組織並未紀錄相關資料。當教練被發現虐待未成年運動員,各項運動之間並不存在統一的裁罰標準。許多涉嫌虐待甚至導致運動員自殺的教練,迄今仍持續任教。

這些制度失靈致使兒童運動員很容易遭受虐待。在人權觀察在20203月到6月進行的網上問卷調查中,有425名現退役兒童運動員表示曾在參加體育活動時親身經歷肢體虐待;其中17524歲以下的受訪者近期或持續遭受虐待,我們因此得以就現行做法及其後果進行評估。在我們回收的問卷中,共有來自45個縣級行政區、至少50項不同運動項目的現役或退役兒童運動員談到他們遭受虐待的情況。

通過訪談,人權觀察得以詳細記錄這些經驗的性質及其負面影響。例如,琦玉縣前中學棒球隊員,現年23歲的翔太(化名),談到被教練虐待的經驗:「他出拳打我下巴,把我打得滿口鮮血。然後又抓住衣領把我拎起來。」這在翔太的球隊有如家常便飯:「百分之90的隊友都曾被體罰。⋯⋯我們常互相開玩笑說,『你今天還沒被揍,什麼時候輪到你?』」

接受人權觀察訪問的運動員談到,教練打人不會被追究責任是既成文化。在最近曾受虐待的兒童運動員受訪者中,除了一位以外,都說教練沒有受到任何處分。

根據國際法,各國政府有義務確保兒童從事體育活動的權利,以及兒童不受暴力或虐待的權利。為了終結日本兒童運動員受虐,國家必須採取一致措施,以明確的權責和準則為依歸。作為起步,政府應當明確禁止以任何形式的虐待作為體育教練技巧,並設立日本安全體育中心,以獨立機構地位專責處理體育活動中的兒童虐待。此一機構應負責制定和維護兒童運動員的保護準則,並應作為調查虐待案件的中央行政當局,對施暴的教練作出相稱處分。涉及犯罪行為的虐待案件應即時移送檢警機關偵辦。

隨著東京奧運會暨帕運會延至2021年夏季,日本在賽會開幕前有一整年時間可以採取果決行動。這是日本的難得機會,可以向世人展現對兒童運動員福祉的關注,率先為人人都能安全參與體育活動樹立標竿。藉此,日本將躍居聯合國終止暴力全球伙伴的領頭羊,充分發揚其對終結暴力對待兒童的承諾。採取保護兒童運動員的果決行動,可讓日本兒童感到他們的健康和福祉深受重視,讓施虐的教練警覺自己的行為將不再受到容忍,並為其他國家終結體育界兒童虐待問題樹立楷模。

 

主要建議

對日本國會:

  • 修正《體育基本法》或制定新法,明文規定:

  • 禁止體育組織中教練對兒童運動員一切形式的虐待;

  • 明確運動員的權利,包括參與體育活動不受虐待的權利;

  • 所有兒童體育教練必須接受培訓;以及

  • 任何成年人得知兒童運動員遭受虐待時必須予以舉報。

  • 修正《兒童虐待防止法》,擴大第2條有關兒童虐待定義的適用範圍,明文納入體育組織中的兒童虐待。

  • 設立日本安全體育中心,以獨立機構地位專責處理日本體育界兒童虐待問題。在各種體育組織之間,此一獨立機構將作為日本體育界處理所有兒童運動員受虐案件的中央行政當局。

    • 制定有關兒童運動員受虐的預防和保護準則,確保該準則得到日本各大體育組織充分遵守;

    • 直接受理兒童運動員受虐案件的申訴或舉報,以及通過中央舉報系統匯整所有現行舉報機制所獲資料;

    • 對所有體育組織中的兒童運動員受虐案件進行調查,對涉案教練給予相稱處分——例如註銷教練執照、暫停或取消教練資格——並為受處分教練提供申訴管道;
    • 於適當時將虐待案件移交執法機關進行刑事偵辦;

    • 記錄並發佈舉報案件數量及調查結果相關數據;
    • 建立受處分教練公開登錄制度;

    • 確保受虐兒童運動員獲得免費、持續性的專業心理諮詢;

    • 為所有兒童體育教練制定訓練準則;以及

    • 實施有關此一獨立機構功能與運作的教育宣導活動。

  • 為日本安全體育中心提供必要經費,維持足以執行前述各項工作的人力與資源。

對日本體育廳:

  • 制定新指針,明確下列事項:

    • 禁止體育組織教練對兒童運動員的一切形式虐待;

    • 明確運動員應享的各項權利,包括參與體育活動不受虐待的權利;

    • 要求所有兒童體育教練接受培訓;以及

    • 要求所有成年人得知兒童運動員受虐時必須加以舉報。
  • 修正2019年體育管理規則,明定所有全國性體育聯合會及正規體育組織必須遵守該規則。修正後的規則應納入有關兒童運動員受虐之舉報、調查和紀律處分措施的明確準則,確保全國各地、各種體育項目對施虐教練給予一致處罰。修正後的規則也應強制要求所有成年人,當得知兒童運動員受虐時須向有關當局舉報,包括向執法機關檢舉相關犯罪行為。

對文部科學省:

  • 在第3期體育基本計劃(20222026年)中,加強並重視保護兒童運動員免於虐待,並應明確說明達成此一目標的具體措施。

  • 修訂文部科學省對校園虐待問題的年度調查,提供校園體育虐待事件相關數據。

  • 要求所有校園體育教練參加兒童保護培訓及認證。

對日本體育協會、日本奧林匹克委員會和日本障礙者體育協會:

  • 要求所有會員組織體育教練參加兒童保護培訓及認證。
 

[1] Aaron Miller, “Taibatsu: ‘corporal punishment’ in Japanese socio-cultural context,” Japan Forum, vol. 21, no. 2 (April 2010), pp. 233-254.

[2] Human Rights Watch interview with Makoto Y., Fukuoka, February 18, 2020.

[3] Human Rights Watch interview with Tetsuya O., Chiba, February 20, 2020.

[4] Human Rights Watch interview with Noboru E., Tokyo, February 12, 2020.

[5] Human Rights Watch interview with Naoko D., Tokyo, February 24, 2020.

[6] Mike Burke, “108 school judo class deaths but no charges, only silence,” Japan Times, August 26, 2010, https://www.japantimes.co.jp/news/2010/08/26/national/108-school-judo-class-deaths-but-no-charges-only-silence/ (accessed July 6, 2020).

[7] Ryo Uchida, “Facing the cervical accident of the middle-advanced person in the 12th fatal accident of school judo,” Yahoo Japan, May 16, 2016, https://news.yahoo.co.jp/byline/ryouchida/20160516-00057737/ (accessed July 6, 2020).

[8] Mike Burke, “108 school judo class deaths but no charges, only silence,” Japan Times, August 26, 2010, https://www.japantimes.co.jp/news/2010/08/26/national/108-school-judo-class-deaths-but-no-charges-only-silence/ (accessed July 6, 2020).

[9] Michael L. Butterworth, “Sport and Militarism: Contemporary Global Perspectives”, Routledge, June 2017.

[10] Brent McDonald and Keiki Kawai, “Punishing coaching: bukatsudo and the normalization of coach violence”, Japan Forum, vol. 21, no. 2 (August 2016): 196-217.

[11] Ibid., p.204.

[12] Ibid., p.208.

[13] Haruka Hagiwara and Sandy Wolfson, “Attitudes towards soccer coaches’ use of punishment in Japan and England: A cross-cultural study,” International Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, vol. 11, no.1 (September 2012), pp. 57-69.

[14] Ed Odeven, “Veteran athletes, coaches adamant that corporal punishment has no place in sports,” Japan Times, 20 January 2013, https://www.japantimes.co.jp/sports/2013/01/20/bj-league/veteran-athletes-coaches-adamant-that-corporal-punishment-has-no-place-in-sports/#.XoOjddNKjBI (accessed June 29, 2020).

[15] “Student commits suicide after being beaten by school basketball coach,” Japan Today, January 9, 2013, https://japantoday.com/category/national/student-commits-suicide-after-being-beaten-by-school-basketball-coach (accessed June 29, 2020).

[16] “Osaka basketball coach tries to justify physical discipline after beaten boy's suicide,” Japan Today, January 12, 2013, https://www.japantimes.co.jp/news/2013/01/12/national/social-issues/osaka-basketball-coach-tries-to-justify-physical-discipline-after-beaten-boys-suicide/#.XnkA-C2ZPq1 (accessed June 29, 2020).

[17] “Japan coach gets suspended jail over suicide of abused teen,” Straits Times, September 26, 2013, https://www.straitstimes.com/asia/japan-coach-gets-suspended-jail-over-suicide-of-abused-teen (accessed June 29, 2020).

[18] Justin McCurry, “Japanese women's judo coach resigns over claims he abused athletes,” The Guardian, February 1, 2013, https://www.theguardian.com/world/2013/feb/01/japanese-womens-judo-coach-resigns (accessed June 29, 2020).

[19] “Judo abuse scandal hits Tokyo Olympic bid,” USA Today, February 8, 2013, https://www.usatoday.com/story/sports/olympics/2013/02/08/judo-abuse-scandal-tokyo-olympics-bid/1901221/ (accessed June 29, 2020).

[20] Ibid; Nobuyoshi Tsujiguchi and Eisuke Okamura, "Worries and Suffers of Top Judo Female Athletes: Working with the 15 Gentle and Strong Players," Can Japan's Sports Community Wipe Out Violence?, 2013.

[21] Japanese Olympic Committee athlete survey, 2013; “JOC Survey, 10% of Athletes Experienced Harassment,” Nihon Keizai Shimbun, March 19, 2013, https://www.nikkei.com/article/DGXNASDG1903V_Z10C13A3CR8000/ (accessed May 25, 2020).

[22] DAITAIREN survey, 2013, http://daitairen.or.jp/2013/wp-content/uploads/2015/01/f2cb4f9e1c5f5e1021e44042438f44ab.pdf (accessed June 29, 2020).

[23] Japan Sport Association response to Human Rights Watch data request.

[24] UNICEF, “Violence Against Children in East Asia and the Pacific: A Regional Review and Synthesis of Findings,” 2014, https://www.unicef.org/eap/media/2901/file/violence.pdf (accessed June 29, 2020).

[25] Dan Gordon, “Japan: ‘No Matter What Happens, Stand Up,’” in ed. George Gmelch and Daniel A. Nathan, Baseball Beyond Our Borders, (Lincoln, Nebraska: University of Nebraska Press, 2017), pp 153-183.

[26] Human Rights Watch interview with Kenta K., Tokyo, February 19, 2020.

[27] Human Rights Watch interview with Hajime W., Kumamoto, February 18, 2020.

[28] Human Rights Watch interview with Shota C., video-conference, February 4, 2020.

[29] Human Rights Watch interview with Tsukuru U., video-conference, March 26, 2020.

[30] Human Rights Watch interview with Yuma T., Kumamoto, February 18, 2020.

[31] Ibid.

[32] Human Rights Watch interview with Daiki A., Fukuoka, February 17, 2020.

[33] Human Rights Watch interview with Keisuke W., Osaka, February 12, 2020.

[34]"A volleyball coach at Ashikaga University Senior High School may have beaten a second year student, who was kicked and injured", Mainichi Shimbun, November 30, 2017, https://mainichi.jp/articles/20171130/k00/00m/040/168000c?fbclid=IwAR0CA_OXDC8-JeBZnMA6FDRBdeLulrvlSgboKtvm6rG9WJXDpyMSF6UkBPY (accessed July 3, 2020).

[35]ANN NEWS, “Male team manager taibatsu to athletes,” video report, November, 13, 2018; “Violence to team members, student baseball examination meeting decides on one year suspension for former professional team manager Hiroki Sakai,” Sankei Shumbun, December 18, 2018, https://www.sankei.com/sports/news/181218/spo1812180025-n1.html (accessed May 25, 2020).

[36] Human Rights Watch interview with Kaoru Z., video-conference, March 23, 2020.

[37] Human Rights Watch interview with Shota C., video-conference, February 4, 2020.

[38] Human Rights Watch interview with Moe J., Tokyo, February 15, 2020.

[39] Human Rights Watch online survey.

[40] Human Rights Watch interview with Moe J., Tokyo, February 15, 2020.

[41] Ibid.

[42] Ibid.

[43] Ibid.

[44] Ibid.

[45] Ibid.

[46] Ibid.

[47] Ibid.

[48] Human Rights Watch interview with Moe J., Tokyo, February 15, 2020.

[49] Human Rights Watch online survey.

[50] World Health Organization, “Responding to Children and Adolescents Who Have Been Sexually Abused,” 2017, https://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/handle/10665/259270/9789241550147-eng.pdf;jsessionid=34D104F399603D9A32AF851BAFCAA8C5?sequence=1 (accessed June 29, 2020).

[51] Human Rights Watch interview with Chieko T., email, May 12, 2020.

[52] Ibid.

[53] Human Rights Watch interview with a manager of a professional women’s soccer team, video conference, March 26, 2020.

[54] Human Rights Watch interview with Kaoru Z., video-conference, March 23, 2020.

[55] “Parents say coach’s ‘verbal violence’ led to son’s suicide,” The Asahi Shimbun, January 27, 2019 

http://www.asahi.com/ajw/articles/AJ201901270003.html (accessed June 29, 2020).

[56] “Teacher’s verbal abuse, threats blamed for 15-year-old girl’s suicide,” Japan Today, May 7, 2019, https://japantoday.com/category/national/teacher%E2%80%99s-verbal-abuse-blamed-for-15-year-old-girl%E2%80%99s-suicide?comment-order=latest (accessed June 29, 2020).

[57] Human Rights Watch interview with Junko M., video-conference, April 16, 2020.

[58] Human Rights Watch interview with Tomohiko C., Tokyo, February 10, 2020.

[59] Human Rights Watch interview with Chieko T., email, May 12, 2020.

[60] Global Initiative to End All Forms of Corporal Punishment of Children, “Corporal punishment of children: review of research on its impact and associations,” 2016, http://endcorporalpunishment.org/wp-content/uploads/research/Research-effects-review-2016-06.pdf (accessed June 29, 2020).

[61] Human Rights Watch interview with Dorothy Rozga, video-conference, April 9, 2020.

[62] Human Rights Watch interview with Professor Osamu Takamine, Tokyo, February 8, 2020.

[63] Human Rights Watch interview with Naomi Masuko, video-conference, April 9, 2020.

[64] Ibid.

[65] Articles 204 (injury) and 208 (assault), Penal Code of Japan, http://www.japaneselawtranslation.go.jp/law/detail/?id=1960&re=02&vm=04 (accessed July 2, 2020).

[66] “Japan coach gets suspended jail over suicide of abused teen,” Straits Times, September 26, 2013, https://www.straitstimes.com/asia/japan-coach-gets-suspended-jail-over-suicide-of-abused-teen (accessed July 2, 2020).

[67] Human Rights Watch interview with Lawyer Hiroyuki Kusaba, video-conference, May 14, 2020.

[68] Human Rights Watch online survey.

[69] “Volleyball coach kick team member, kneeled down and saying it is taibatsu,” The Asahi Shimbun, November 30, 2017, https://www.asahi.com/articles/ASKCZ33CMKCZUUHB005.html (accessed on June 9, 2020).

[70] “Teacher’s verbal abuse, threats blamed for 15-year-old girl’s suicide,” Japan Today, 7 May 2019, https://japantoday.com/category/national/teacher%E2%80%99s-verbal-abuse-blamed-for-15-year-old-girl%E2%80%99s-suicide?comment-order=latest (accessed July 2, 2020); Takahagi City Board of Education response to Human Rights Watch inquiry, May 28, 2020.

[71] Nagoya Keizai University Senior High School response to Human Rights Watch inquiry, May 20, 2020.

[72] Ibid.

[73] “Former 60kg world champion Ryuji Sonoda to become a coach,” PARK 24, April 1, 2016, http://judo.park24.co.jp/information/2016_04_01_4504.html (accessed June 9, 2020).

[74] Human Rights Watch interview with Kaoru Z., video-conference, March 23, 2020.

[75] Human Rights Watch interview with Chieko T., email, May 12, 2020.

[76] Human Rights Watch interview with a manager of a professional women’s soccer team, video conference, March 26, 2020.

[77] Human Rights Watch interview with Yuko Shimazawa, Tokyo, February 7, 2020.

[78] The Basic Act on Sport, 2011, https://www.mext.go.jp/a_menu/sports/kihonhou/attach/1336024.htm (accessed June 29, 2020).

[79] Ibid.

[80] Ibid.

[81] Ibid.

[82] Human Rights Watch interview with Takuya Yamazaki, video-conference, April 7, 2020.

[83] MEXT, "The Sport Basic Plan," March 30, 2012. https://www.mext.go.jp/component/a_menu/sports/detail/__icsFiles/afieldfile/2012/04/02/1319359_3_1.pdf (accessed June 29, 2020).

[84] Japan Sports Agency, “Background of establishment,” https://www.mext.go.jp/sports/en/about_us/background/ (accessed June 29, 2020). 

[85] Sasakawa Sports Foundation, “White Paper on Sport in Japan,” 2017, http://www.ssf.or.jp/Portals/0/resources/outline/en/pdf/SportWhitePaperinJapan2017_c.pdf, (accessed June 29, 2020). 

[86] Japan Sports Agency, “Organizational chart,” https://www.mext.go.jp/sports/en/about_us/soshiki/1362177.html (accessed June 29, 2020).

[87] JSA response to Human Rights Watch data request, April 6, 2020.

[88] “The Declaration on the Elimination of Violence in Sports,” 2013, https://www.joc.or.jp/english/aboutjoc/statement/130425.html (accessed June 29, 2020).

[89] Ibid.

[90] Human Rights Watch interview with Lawyer Shoichi Sugiyama, video-conference, April 6, 2020.

[91] Japan Sports Agency, “Governance Code for National Sport Federations”, 2019, https://www.mext.go.jp/sports/b_menu/sports/mcatetop10/list/1412105.html (accessed June 29, 2020). 

[92] Ibid.

[93] Japan Sport Association response to Human Rights Watch data request, July 7, 2020.

[94] Japan Sports Agency, “Governance Code for National Sport Federations” and “Governance Code for Regular Sports Organizations”, 2019, https://www.mext.go.jp/sports/b_menu/sports/mcatetop10/list/1412105.html(accessed June 29, 2020).

[95] Human Rights Watch analysis of sports organizations’ abuse reporting systems. Human Rights Watch interns attempted to identify the available reporting systems for over 60 sports organizations; the process was difficult, with information often unavailable or difficult to verify online. We focused our analysis on these 14 major organizations, which are reflective of the broader inconsistency in available reporting systems.

[96] Human Rights Watch interview with Lawyer Shoichi Sugiyama, video-conference, April 6, 2020.

[97] Human Rights Watch interview with Keiko Kobayashi, video-conference, April 20, 2020.

[98] Human Rights Watch interview with Lawyer Shoichi Sugiyama, video-conference, April 6, 2020.

[99] Ibid.

[100] JSPO, “You are the future of sport: Activities for the 2018 fiscal year,” p. 28. Copy on file with Human Rights Watch.

[101] Human Rights Watch interview with Tsukuru U., video-conference, March 26, 2020.

[102] Japan Sports Agency response to Human Rights Watch data request, April 6, 2020.

[103] Japan Sport Association, “Hotline for violent acts etc in sports,” https://www.japan-sports.or.jp/about/tabid983.html (accessed June 29, 2020).

[104] Japan Sport Law Support and Research Center, “Japan Sport Association Consulting Office.” http://jsl-src.org/?page_id=39 (accessed June 29, 2020).

[105] Japan Sport Association response to Human Rights Watch data request, May 12, 2020.

[106] Human Rights Watch interview with Lawyer Shoichi Sugiyama, video-conference, April 6, 2020; Japan Sport Council “Third party consultation and investigation system hotline,” https://www.jpnsport.go.jp/corp/gyoumu/tabid/517/Default.aspx (accessed June 2, 2020).

[107] “Opening of hotline for athletes and coaches,” Japanese Olympic Committee, March 19, 2013, https://www.joc.or.jp/news/detail.html?id=2491 (accessed June 29, 2020).

[108] Human Rights Watch interview with Lawyer Shoichi Sugiyama, video-conference, April 6, 2020.

[109] “300,000 yen fine to former gymnastics coach: first case after JOC hotline established,” The Hokkaido Shimbun Press, March 25, 2015.

[110] “Japan Gymnastics Association - Tomoko Hagiwara and others nominated for Board members,” Jiji.com, June 8, 2019, https://news.myjcom.jp/sp/sports/story/all/190608F894.html (accessed June 29, 2020).

[111] Human Rights Watch interview with Lawyer Takuya Yamazaki, video-conference, April 7, 2020.

[112] Japan Volleyball Association, “Action Plan 2020,” February 26, 2020.

[113] Japan Volleyball Association response to Human Rights Watch data request, April 16, 2020.

[114] Japan Softball Association response to Human Rights Watch data request, May 13, 2020.

[115] Japan Sport Association response to Human Rights Watch data request, May 12, 2020.

[116] Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology “Notice on through coaching based on student’s understanding and ban on taibatsu,” No.1269, March 13, 2013, https://www.mext.go.jp/a_menu/shotou/seitoshidou/1331907.html (accessed June 29, 2020).

[117] Human Rights Watch interview with Lawyer Takuya Yamazaki, video-conference, April 7, 2020.

[118] Handout provided by Japan Sports Agency regarding JSPO’s “Model, Core Curriculum for Fostering Good Coaches”, 2019. Copy on file with Human Rights Watch.

[119] Japan Sport Association, “Model, Core Curriculum for Fostering Good Coaches”, 2019. Copy on file with Human Rights Watch.

[120] Ibid.

[121] Japan Sport Association, “Model, Core Curriculum for Fostering Good Coaches”, 2019. Copy on file with Human Rights Watch.

[122] Japan Sport Association response to Human Rights Watch data request, April 17, 2020.

[123] Japan Sport Association, “Report on school club sport coaches,” July 2014, https://www.japan-sports.or.jp/Portals/0/data/katsudousuishin/doc/houkokusho.pdf (accessed May 25, 2020). 

[124] Human Rights Watch interview with an expert affiliate of JSPO, video-conference, March 31, 2020.

[125] Human Rights Watch interview with Naomi Masuko, video-conference, April 9, 2020.

[126] Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology “Guidelines on Coaching at School Athletic Club Activities,” May 2013, https://www.mext.go.jp/sports/b_menu/sports/mcatetop04/list/detail/__icsFiles/afieldfile/2018/06/12/1372445_1.pdf (accessed June 29, 2020).

[127]Japan Sports Association, “A Comprehensive Guideline for Athletic Club Activities,” March 2018. Copy on file with Human Rights Watch.

[128] U.S. Center for SafeSport, https://uscenterforsafesport.org/about/our-work/ (accessed June 29, 2020).

[129] Tracy Connor & Sarah Fitzpatrick, “Gymnast Maggie Nichols was first to report abuse by Larry Nassar,” NBC News, June 9, 2018, https://www.nbcnews.com/news/us-news/gymnast-maggie-nichols-was-first-report-abuse-larry-nassar-n836046

(accessed June 29, 2020).

[130] Ibid.

[131] Dakota Crawford & Amy Hamline, “Follow IndyStar’s Larry Nassar, USA Gymnastics and Larry Nassar from start to finish,” IndyStar, https://www.indystar.com/story/sports/2018/01/24/indystar-larry-nassar-usa-gymnastics-investigation/1062120001/, (accessed June 29, 2020). 

[132] Letter from U.S. Senators Dianne Feinstein, Patrick Leahy, RIchard Blumenthal, & Joe Donnelly to USA Gymnastics President and CEO Steve Penny, August 5, 2016, https://www.documentcloud.org/documents/3006350-US-Senators-8-5-16-USA-Gymnastics-Letter.html (accessed June 29, 2020). 

[133] Scott Cacciola and Victor Mather, “Larry Nassar sentencing: ‘I just signed your death warrant,’” New York Times, January 24, 2018, https://www.nytimes.com/2018/01/24/sports/larry-nassar-sentencing.html (accessed June 29, 2020).

[134] Protecting Young Victims from Sexual Abuse and Safe Sport Authorization Act of 2017, https://www.govinfo.gov/content/pkg/PLAW-115publ126/pdf/PLAW-115publ126.pdf (accessed June 29, 2020).

[135] U.S. Center for SafeSport, https://uscenterforsafesport.org/ (accessed June 29, 2020).

[136] Rachel Axon and Nancy Armour, “SafeSport CEO Shellie Pfohl will step down at year’s end,” USA Today, February 21, 2019, https://www.usatoday.com/story/sports/olympics/2018/12/28/shellie-pfohl-safesports-ceo-stepping-down/2438229002/ (accessed June 29, 2020).

[137] Letter from Olympic and Paralympic Athletes to United States Congress, n.d., https://img1.wsimg.com/blobby/go/573edb75-6173-4bec-8d91-9972c89dc2cd/downloads/Olympic%20Movement%20Member%20Support%20Ltr%20S2330%20Comm.pdf?ver=1583960765570&fbclid=IwAR3FAEfrLrdIgxFxIiSMjcqGq0xcjzlubewpXNhiu9VVZJsMrd31oVlDg8Y (accessed June 29, 2020).

[138] US Center for SafeSport, “Centralized Disciplinary Database,” https://uscenterforsafesport.org/response-and-resolution/disciplinary-database/ (accessed June 29, 2020).

[139] US Center for SafeSport, “2018 Form 990,” https://bit.ly/2LdOQG0, (accessed June 29, 2020).

[140] “Sporting organizations double funding to SafeSport Center,” USA Today, September 21, 2018, https://www.usatoday.com/story/sports/olympics/2018/09/21/sports-organizations-double-funding-to-safesport-center/37894413/ (accessed June 29, 2020).

[141] Rachel Axon and Nancy Armour, “SafeSport CEO Shellie Pfohl will step down at year’s end,” USA Today, February 21, 2019, https://www.usatoday.com/story/sports/olympics/2018/12/28/shellie-pfohl-safesports-ceo-stepping-down/2438229002/ (accessed June 29, 2020).

[142] US Center for SafeSport, “Centralized Disciplinary Database: Matters Adjudicated by the NGBs/LAOs/USOPC,” https://uscenterforsafesport.org/wp-content/uploads/2019/12/CDD-Link-2-NGB-LAO-USOPC-mattersv2.pdf (accessed June 29, 2020).

[143] Prairie Research Associates and the Sport Dispute Resolution Center of Canada, “Pilot Project Evaluation Report Canadian Sport Helpline and Investigation Unit,” March 31, 2020.

[144] Sport Resolutions, “NSP,” https://www.sportresolutions.co.uk/services/national-safeguarding/panel (accessed June 29, 2020).

[145] Sport Resolutions, “Service Overview,” https://www.sportresolutions.co.uk/services/investigations-and-reviews/service-overview (accessed June 29, 2020).

[146] Sport Resolutions, “NSP Investigations,” https://www.sportresolutions.co.uk/services/national-safeguarding/investigations (accessed June 29, 2020).

[147] International Olympic Committee, “IOC Adopts Consensus Statement on ‘Sexual Harassment & Abuse in Sport,” February 8, 2007, https://stillmed.olympic.org/Documents/THE%20IOC/OFFICIAL%20SHA%20Statement.pdf (accessed June 29, 2020).

[148] Ibid.

[149] British Journal of Sports Medicine, “International Olympic Committee consensus statement: harassment and abuse (non-accidental violence) in sport,” https://bjsm.bmj.com/content/50/17/1019 (accessed April 30, 2020).

[150] Ibid.

[151] International Olympic Committee, “Code of Ethics,” 2016, https://stillmed.olympic.org/media/Document%20Library/OlympicOrg/IOC/What-We-Do/Leading-the-Olympic-Movement/Code-of-Ethics/EN-IOC-Code-of-Ethics-2016.pdf (accessed June 29, 2020).

[152] International Olympic Committee, “Safeguarding Toolkit,” 2017, https://www.olympic.org/athlete365/safeguarding/ (accessed June 29, 2020).

[153] Ibid.

[154] Ibid.

[155] Margo Mountjoy, Tine Vertommen, Kirsty Burrows, Susan Greinig,” #SafeSport: safeguarding initiatives at the Youth Olympic Games 2018,” Journal of Sports Medicine, 2020, vol. 54:176–182, https://bjsm.bmj.com/content/bjsports/54/3/176.full.pdf (accessed June 29, 2020).

[156] International Olympic Committee, Olympic Charter, June 26, 2019, https://stillmed.olympic.org/media/Document%20Library/OlympicOrg/General/EN-Olympic-Charter.pdf (accessed June 29, 2020).

[157] Ibid.

[158] International Safeguarding Children in Sport Working Group, International Safeguards for Children in Sport, https://www.sportanddev.org/sites/default/files/downloads/international-safeguards-for-children-in-sport-version-to-view-online.pdf (accessed April 30, 2020).

[159] Mary Harvey, “Protecting Children in the Sports Environment,” February 2020, https://www.sporthumanrights.org/en/resources/protecting-children-in-the-sports-environment-keynote-at-ispcan-2020-qatar (accessed June 29, 2020).

[160] UNESCO, “Kazan Action Plan,” 2017, https://www.un.org/development/desa/dspd/wp-content/uploads/sites/22/2018/06/10.pdf (accessed June 29, 2020); UN Sustainable Development Goal Indicators, Goal 16, Section 2.

[161] The Commonwealth, “Measuring the Contribution of sport, physical education, and physical activity to the Sustainable Development Goals,” 2019, https://thecommonwealth.org/sites/default/files/inline/Sport-SDGs-Indicator-Framework.pdf (accessed June 29, 2020).

[162] UNICEF, “Children’s Rights in Sport Principles,” 2018, https://childinsport.jp/en/ (accessed June 29, 2020).

[163] UNICEF, “Protecting Children from Violence in Sport,” 2010, https://www.unicef-irc.org/publications/pdf/violence_in_sport.pdf (accessed June 29, 2020).

[164] Child Abuse Prevention Law, Article 3, 2000.

[165] Child Abuse Prevention Law, Article 2, 2000.

[166] Aaron Miller, “Taibatsu: ‘corporal punishment’ in Japanese socio-cultural context,” Japan Forum, vol. 21, no. 2 (April 2010): 233-254.

[167] Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology “Notice on through coaching based on student’s understanding and ban on taibatsu,” No.1269, March 13, 2013, https://www.mext.go.jp/a_menu/shotou/seitoshidou/1331907.htm (accessed June 29, 2020).

[168] Child Abuse Prevention Law, Article 14, 2019. It states, “A person who exercises parental authority over a child shall not discipline the child by inflicting corporal punishment upon him/her.”

[169] Basic Act on Sport, Preamble, 2011.

[170] UN General Assembly, Convention on the Rights of the Child, 20 November 1989, United Nations, Treaty Series, vol. 1577, p. 3, https://www.refworld.org/docid/3ae6b38f0.html (accessed June 29, 2020).

[171] UN Committee on the Rights of the Child (CRC), General comment No. 17: The right of the child to rest, leisure, play, recreational activities, cultural life and the arts (art. 31), 17 April 2013, CRC/C/GC/17 (2017), https://www.refworld.org/docid/51ef9bcc4.html (accessed June 29, 2020).

[172] UN Committee on the Rights of the Child (CRC), General comment No. 13: The right of the child to freedom from all forms of violence, 18 April 2011, CRC/C/GC/13 (2011), https://www.refworld.org/docid/4e6da4922.html (accessed June 29, 2020).

[173] Ibid.

[174] UN Committee on the Rights of the Child (CRC), General comment No. 8 (2006): The right of the child to protection from corporal punishment and other cruel and degrading forms of punishment, 2 March 2007, CRC/C/GC/8 (2006), https://resourcecentre.savethechildren.net/node/10263/pdf/gc8.pdf (accessed June 29, 2020).

[175] Ibid.

[176] Ibid.

[177] UN HRC, “Report of the working group on the universal periodic review Japan addendum conclusions and/or recommendations,” A/HRC/8/44, June 12, 2008.

[178] UN HRC, “Report of the working on the universal periodic review Japan addendum views on conclusions and/or recommendations, voluntary commitments and replies presented by the state under review” A/HRC/37/15, March 1, 2018.

[179] Ibid.

[180] End Violence Against Children, https://www.end-violence.org/ (accessed June 29, 2020).

[181] Speech by Parliamentary Vice-Minister for Foreign Affairs Manabu Horii at the 2030 Agenda for Children: End Violence Solutions Summit, February 15, 2018, https://www.mofa.go.jp/fp/hr_ha/page3e_000826.html (accessed June 29, 2020).

[182] UN CRC, “Concluding observations on the combined 4th and 5th periodic reports of Japan,” CRC/C/JPN/CO/4-5, March 5, 2019.

區域/國家