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Uharibifu wa moto uliokithiri kwenye shule ya Imam al-Kazem, eneo la kukusanyika kwa wakimbizi wa ndani (IDP) huko El Geneina. © 2023 Roots for Human Rights and Monitoring Violations
  • Mashambulizi yaliyofanywa na wapiganaji wa Rapid Support Forces na wapiganaji wengine pale El Geneina, mji mkuu wa eneo la magharibi mwa nchi hiyo la Darfur yameua angalau maelfu ya watu na kuacha mamia ya maelfu wakiwa wakimbizi.
  • Ukiukaji mkubwa wa haki za binadamu dhidi ya watu wa jamii ya Massalit na jamii nyingine zisizokuwa za Kiarabu kwa nia ya kuwaondoa kabisa katika eneo hilo ni sawa na ufurushaji wa kikabila.
  • Umoja wa Mataifa na Muungano wa Afrika lazima kwa dharura ziweke vikwazo vya silaha kwa Sudan, kuwachukulia hatua wahusika wa uhalifu wa kivita na kutuma ujumbe wa kijeshi kuwalinda raia.

(Nairobi, Mei 9, 2024) – Mashambulizi yaliyofanywa na vikosi vya Rapid Support (RSF) na wapiganaji wenza katika El Geneina, mji mkuu wa eneo la magharibi mwa Sudan la Darfur, kuanzia Aprili hadi Novemba mwaka wa 2023 yalisababisha vifo vya angalau maelfu ya watu, huku mamia ya maelfu wakiachwa wakimbizi, Shirika la Human Rights Watch lilisema katika ripoti iliyotolewa leo. Uhalifu dhidi ya binadamu na uhalifu mkubwa wa kivita ulifanywa katika dhamira ya utokomezaji na ufurushaji wa kikabila wa watu wa jamii ya Massalit na jamii nyingine zisizokuwa za Kiarabu katika eneo la El Geneina.

Ripoti hiyo ya kurasa 218, The Massalit Will Not Come Home; Ethnic Cleansing and Crimes Against Humanity in El Geneina, West Darfur, Sudan “Massalit Hawatarudi Nyumbani: Ufurushaji wa Kijamii na Uhalifu dhidi ya Binadamu eneo la El Geneina, Darfur Magharibi, Nchini Sudan” inaeleza kuwa wapiganaji wa Rapid Support Forces, na wanamgambo wa Kiarabu wanaowaunga mkono, wakiwemo kundi lililojihami la Third-Front Tamazuj,  walilenga eneo jirani la El Geneina lenye idadi kubwa ya watu wa Massalit, katika msururu wa mashambulizi kuanzia Aprili hadi Juni. Hujuma hiyo iliendelea tena mapema mwezi wa Novemba. Washambuliaji walifanya madhila mengine kama kuwatesa watu, kuwabaka na kupora mali. Zaidi ya wakimbizi nusu milioni kutoka Darfur Magharibi wamekimbilia nchini Chad tangu Aprili mwaka jana. Kufikia mwishoni mwa Oktoba mwaka wa 2023, asilimia 75 walikuwa kutoka El Geneina.

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Jamal Abdullah Khamis, Human Rights Lawyer from El Geneina


Of everything that happened what disturbed me most was what happened at the Mohamed Adam Clinic.


When I walked in, I found my friend Mudather in the southeast corner of the clinic. 


It was as if he was sleeping.


He didn’t look like he was dead.


He looked completely normal.


But in fact, he was dead.


When I arrived, they told me that he’d been shot in the back by a bullet.


They told me he was shot with a DShK gun because the bullet was big.


It went in, and it didn’t come out.


Narration by Mohamed Osman, researcher, Human Rights Watch


On April 15, 2023, war breaks out in Sudan.


It marks an escalation of the power struggle between two military leaders who have vied for power since they jointly overthrew a power-sharing government in October 2021.


The war pits the military against an autonomous force known as the Rapid Support Forces, or RSF.


By April 24, 2023, the conflict spreads to El Geneina, the capital of West Darfur.


The atrocities that follow are documented by Jamal and other local human rights activists with the aim of bringing those responsible to justice.


Jamal Abdullah Khamis, Human Rights Lawyer from El Geneina


I was at al-Sadaqa Clinic on April 24, from the first day of the events, with a group of my colleagues from our organization.


We were working in the clinic.


Our role was documenting violations against the injured and the dead.


Everyone who was brought to the clinic we would document.


The number, their names, (ethnic) backgrounds and information.


We were documenting all of these things.


Narration by Mohamed Osman, researcher, Human Rights Watch


Jamal and his colleagues notice a pattern to the killings.


The RSF and allied Arab militias were targeting doctors, lawyers and human rights activists.


Majority-Massalit neighborhoods and camps for internally displaced people were also being systematically targeted. 


The violence feels all too familiar to Jamal and others in West Darfur state, who recall fleeing their home villages in the early 2000s after being attacked by the Janjaweed, the predecessor of the RSF.


Thousands were displaced, including many Massalit people.


They found refuge in the camps for internally displaced people that swelled the outskirts of El Geneina.


The conflict then occurred against a backdrop of long-standing tensions over land and other resources between non-Arab farmers, such as the Massalit, and nomadic Arab communities who were starting to settle.


On June 15th, 2023, RSF and Arab militias overwhelm the remaining Massalit-majority neighborhoods.


Tens of thousands of Massalit and other non-Arabs try to flee central El Geneina for its northern suburb of Ardamata, where there’s a Sudanese Armed Forces base.


The RSF and militias attack the convoy, injuring and killing men, women, and children.


Jamal Abdullah Khamis, Human Rights Lawyer from El Geneina


I was accompanying my (injured) friend, Yousef Haroun Kabello.


Minutes later around eight militiamen appeared wearing RSF uniforms.


There were others with them from these well-known Arab militias.


They were arguing with people.


They stopped the cars.


They opened fire on us.


They shot at the chests of children, women, old and young men.


It was a harrowing scene.


We thought about how to escape.


But we needed a way to escape.


How were we going to escape?


They started chasing people down the valley and firing on people who were in the water.


It was terrifying.


We couldn’t go back or move forward.


We hid in some grass and bushes on the edge of the valley.


That was at dawn on (June) 15th before sunrise.


Then a chance came to run back.


In al-Majliss neighborhood we experienced something terrifying.


When we were going down the street we saw bodies everywhere, of women and children.


They were the bodies of people we knew personally.


But you can’t stop and help someone who is dead in the street.


We kept running because we were being chased.


TEXT: The killings continue for several days in El Geneina and on the road to Chad, where tens of thousands of civilians, including Jamal, flee in search of refuge.


Jamal Abdullah Khamis, Human Rights Lawyer from El Geneina


I found someone I knew and said, “Let my friend Kabello ride with you, he’s injured. It’s not a problem, I’ll walk behind with everyone else.”


He said, “My car is full, but he can get in.”


After a while we were attacked.


Bullets started showering us from all directions and people were being killed.


A child of around nine years old, came to me crying hysterically and was holding on to me.


While we were walking, we came to a big trench.


But the militiamen probably saw us going in there, because they were nearby.


They forced us out and started beating us, torturing us, and firing just over our heads.


They were arguing about whether to kill us or not.


Those who had belongings, they took them.


I had my two mobile phones, a USB stick, and some cash.


The nine-year-old child was lying down by my side.


The beating and torturing intensified, they were using a metal rod, some sticks, and whips to beat us.


We were lying on our stomachs, and he stood up.


The young boy couldn’t handle it anymore.


They shot him in the head, and his head exploded.


He died immediately.


A second group also started beating and interrogating us.


They asked what tribes we were from.


If you answered that you are Massalit, they would kill you immediately.


I denied that I am Massalit even though I am Massalit.


They pressured me, and I told them I am from the Bargo tribe.


They brought someone to talk to me in the Bargo language and I replied because I know how to speak it.


He said, “Brother, go.”


We entered Chad.


We were shocked to see Chadian officials in front of us.


Chadian military uniforms are very similar to RSF uniforms.


They were also carrying whips.


They all had a whip and a gun.


The RSF have the same.


When our group ran towards them (the troops) they told us to stop running.


We were surprised, and thought it was the RSF again.


We ran back towards Adikong (in Sudan).


The soldiers ran after us and said, “We are Chadian officials.”


We weren’t convinced until we saw the Chadian flag on their uniform.


“We’re Chadian officials. This is Chad, you are safe.”


“Many of your people arrived here before you. Welcome.”


I was very tired, and they took me to the hospital.


When I was in the hospital, who did I find?


The man who was with me.


My friend Kabello that I helped into the car.


He made it, and they took him to the hospital.


That was our horrific journey.


Despite the huge shock and gruesome massacres that happened in West Darfur, I still have a lot of hope.


Life in refugee camps and abroad is very tough.


It’s no place to live.


I have hope that El Geneina will recover, and we will go back soon.


That depends on rebuilding the justice system.


We need justice to be carried out.


We need the principles of human rights and international law.


That speak of the dignity of human life and the dignity of people.


If these are embodied in West Darfur, then there is hope that we can return to El Geneina.


The international community should deploy a mission to protect civilians in Sudan.


TEXT: The international community should also impose sanctions against those responsible for atrocities and establish an arms embargo on Sudan.

“Wakati Baraza la Usalama la Umoja wa Mataifa na serikali zinaanza kuona janga linalonukia El Fasher, ukatili wa kiwango kikubwa uliofanywa huko El Geneina unapaswa kuchukuliwa kama onyo la ukatili unaoweza kutokea ikiwa hatua za pamoja hazitachukuliwa,” alisema Tirana Hassan, Mkurugenzi Mkuu wa Human Rights Watch. “Serikali, Muungano wa Afrika na Umoja wa Mataifa wanahitaji kuchukua hatua sasa kuwalinda raia. “

Kuwalenga watu wa jamii ya Massalit na jamii nyingine zisizokuwa za Kiarabu kwa kuwatendea hujuma kubwa kwa lengo la kuwaondoa kabisa katika eneo hilo ni sawa na ufurushaji wa kikabila. Muktadha wa jinsi mauaji haya yalifanywa kunaibua pia uwezekano kuwa RSF na washirika wao wana nia ya kuangamiza kwa sehemu au kwa ujumla watu wa Massalit huko Darfur Magharibi, jambo ambalo linaonyesha kuwa mauaji ya kimbari yamekuwepo au yanafanyika huko.

Kati ya Juni Mwaka 2023 na Aprili 2023, Shirika la Human Rights Watch liliwahoji zaidi ya watu 220 nchini Chad, Uganda, Kenya na Sudan Kusini na pia eneo lililoathiriwa nchini Sudan. Watafiti pia walitathmini na kuchambua zaidi ya picha na video 120 za matukio hayo, picha za setailiti, na stakabadhi zilizotolewa na mashirika ya haki za binadamu ili kuthibitisha taarifa za kutokea hujuma kubwa dhidi ya binadamu.

Vurugu zilizotokea El Geneina zilianza siku tisa baada ya vita kuanza Khartoum, mji mkuu wa Sudan, kati ya Jeshi la Sudan (SAF), na vikosi vya Rapid Support (RSF). Asubuhi ya Aprili tarehe 24, RSF walikabiliana na msafara wa Jeshi la Sudan uliokuwa ukipita katika eneo la El Geneina. Kisha RSF na washirika wao wakashambulia maeneo jirani yaliyokuwa na watu wa jamii ya Massalit, na kukabiliana na makundi yaliyojihami ya jamii hiyo waliokuwa wakitetea jamii zao. Katika majuma kadhaa yaliyofuatia, na hata baada ya makundi yaliyojihami ya Massalit kupoteza udhibiti wa eneo lao, RSF pamoja na wapiganaji wenza wenye silaha waliamua kulenga raia wasiokuwa na silaha. 

Vurugu hizo zilifikia kilele chake pale kulitokea mauaji ya halaiki Juni tarehe 15, wakati RSF na washirika wao walishambulia msafara mrefu - kilomita kadhaa, wa raia waliokuwa wakijaribu kutoroka vita, wakisindikizwa na wapiganaji wa Massalit. RSF na wapiganaji wenza waliwafuata, wakawazunguka na kuanza kuwafyatulia risasi wanaume, wanawake na watoto waliokimbia kupita kwenye mitaa au walijaribu kuogelea kwenye maji ya mto Kajja yanayokwenda kwa kasi. Wengi walizama. Watu wazee na waliojeruhiwa hawakuachwa

Kijana wa kiume mwenye umri wa miaka 17 alielezea jinsi watoto 12 na watu wazima watano kutoka familia kadhaa waliuawa. “Wapiganaji wawili wa RSF walinyakua watoto kutoka kwa wazazi wao, na wazazi walipoanza kupiga mayowe wakilia, wapiganaji wengine wawili wa RSF waliwauwa kwa kuwafyatulia risasi. Kisha wakawarundika watoto hao eneo moja na kuwafyatulia risasi. Wakarusha miili yao kwenye mto na mali zao zikafuatishwa majini humo.”

Siku hiyo na katika siku zilizofuatia, mashambulizi yaliendelezwa kwa makumi ya maelfu ya raia waliokuwa wakijaribu kutorokea Chad, eneo hilo likirundikwa miili ya watu. Video zilizochapishwa wakati huo zinaonesha umati wa raia wakikimbilia usalama wao katika barabara inayounganisha El Geneina na Chad. 

Shirika la Human Rights Watch pia lina taarifa za kuuawa kwa wakazi wa Kiarabu na kuporwa kwa maeneo ya Waarabu na wapiganaji wa Massalit wakitumia silaha huku vikosi vya Jeshi la Sudan vikitumia vilipuzi katika maeneo yenye watu wengi katika hali ambazo zilisababisha uharibifu na mauti kwa raia. 

Vikosi vya RSF na wapiganaji washirika waliendeleza hujuma zao tena mwezi Novemba, wakilenga watu wa jamii ya Massalit ambao walikuwa wamepata hifadhi katika eneo la El Geneina la Ardamata, wakiwazunguka wanaume na vijana wa kiume wa Massalit. Kulingana na Umoja wa Mataifa, angalau watu elfu moja waliuawa.

Wakati wa ukiukaji huu wa haki za binadamu, wanawake na wasichana walinajisiwa na kubakwa na kuhujumiwa kingono, wafungwa waliteswa na kuhujumiwa. Washambuliaji  waliharibu miundomsingi muhimu kwa raia, wakilenga maeneo yenye makazi ya watu, na shule katika maeneo yaliyokaliwa na watu wa Massalit. Walipora mali nyingi na kuteketeza makazi ya watu baada ya kuua wakazi wake na kuwalazimisha wengine waondoke.

Matendo haya yalifanywa kama sehemu pana na yenye mfumo maalumu wa mashambulizi dhidi ya jamii ya Massalit na watu wengine wa jamii za watu wasiokuwa Waarabu na hivyo ni uhalifu dhidi ya binadamu kupitia  mauaji, mateso, na kuhamishwa kwa watu kwa lazima, Shirika la Human Rights Watch lilisema.

Uwezekano kuwa mauaji ya halaiki yamefanywa au yanaendelea kufanywa katika eneo la Darfur unahitaji hatua ya haraka kutoka kwa serikali na taasisi zote za kimataifa ili kuwalinda raia. Lazima zihakikishe kuwa uchunguzi unafanywa kubaini ikiwa kulikuwepo au kuna nia ya uongozi wa RSF na washirika wake kutokomeza kabisa au kwa sehemu watu wa jamii ya Massalit na jamii nyingine zisizokuwa za Kiarabu magharibi mwa Darfur, yaani kufanya mauaji ya halaiki. Ikiwa ndivyo, basi wachukue hatua kusitisha unyama huu na kuhakikisha wahusika wa upangaji huu wanawajibishwa kisheria. 

Jamii ya Kimataifa lazima iunge mkono uchunguzi wa Mahakama ya Kimataifa ya Jinai ICC, na mataifa wanachama wa mahakama hiyo lazima yahakikishe ina raslimali za kifedha za kutosha na zinazohitajika katika bajeti yake ili kutekeleza wajibu wake Darfur. 

Human Rights Watch inawatuhumu Kamanda wa RSF, Mohammed “Hemedti” Hamdan Dagalo, kakaye Abdel Raheem Hamdan Dagalo, Kamanda wa RSF Darfur Magharibi Joma’a Barakallah kuwa watu wanaowajibika katika kutoa amri kwa wapiganaji waliofanya uhalifu huu. Shirika la Human Rights Watch pia lilitaja washirika wa RSF, akiwemo Kamanda wa kundi la Tamazuj na viongozi wawili wa Kijamii wa jamii ya Kiarabu kuwa wanaofaa kuwajibishwa kwa uhalifu uliofanywa na wapiganaji.

Umoja wa Mataifa kwa ushirikiano na Muungano wa Afrika lazima ziwatume kwa dharura kikosi cha kuwalinda raia walio katika hatari nchini Sudan. Baraza la Usalama linafaa kuweka vikwazo vya silaha kwa wale waliohusika katika uhalifu Magharibi mwa Darfur, iwe watu au mashirika ambayo yanakiuka marufuku ya silaha. Umoja huo Wafaa kupanua marufuku ya biashara ya silaha iliyowekwa dhidi ya Darfur na kuisambaza Sudan nzima. 

“Kwa Dunia kukosa kuchukua hatua wakati wa hujuma na uhalifu wa kiwango hiki hakuna sababu tosha, “Hassan alisema. “Serikali lazima ihakikishe wote waliohusika wanawajibishwa, ikiwemo kwa kuwekewa vikwazo na kuimarisha ushirikiano na ICC.”

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